В конференции приняли участие разработчики с самым разным опытом, от проактивных новичков до маститых профессионалов.
- Экспертам игровой индустрии
- Разработчикам игр
Glenn has recently been appointed an adjunct associate professor at ANU where he is pursuing collaborative research on precision sound fields, and is a guest lecturer in signal processing and entrepreneurship.
The internet of things and rush to network everything has introduced an enormous number of speakers and microphones that surround us through our daily lives. Yet, we are still stuck with audio devices largely operating independently as single-function devices. What will it mean to have large numbers of devices effectively orchestrated and working co-operatively throughout our day? A utopian view would project seamless information and entertainment that follows us effortlessly. A dystopian view can conjure up ideas of oppressive surveillance, manipulating voices agents, relentless advertising; a cacophony of sound driving us to consume and be placated. Which will it be?
Savva Dudin was educated at St. Petersburg University of the humanities and social sciences in musical sound production. He has worked at Strategic Music as a sound designer before moving onto Wargaming, where he also works as a sound designer.
This speech will cover the creation of interactive music, vertical and horizontal systems, and interactive music with Wwise.
Aleksey has been in game development since 2006. He worked at Floodlight Games as a game designer, and (since 2011) as a sound designer. Alexey came to Wargaming in 2013 and developed audio concepts and sound design for World of Tanks Blitz. In 2015, he became the Minsk audio team lead.
Martin is an entreprenerd, business developer and dealmaker who, for the last 10 years, has been building Simplygon to a de-facto standard and global games industry brand.
Some “general business advice” based on 10 years’ experience of founding, building and running Simplygon as a brand and business, mixed with some personal stories from that decade.
Entrepreneur and gaming fanatic, Paul Wedgwood started London based video games developer Splash Damage in 2001. Under Paul's leadership, Splash Damage has grown from a modest games development team to a studio which has created some of the world's most engaging multiplayer experiences."
How your focus on culture and putting employees first, may allow you to start a video games company with very little capital, avoid ever using investors, use customer funding to grow it, then sell it for more than $150,000,000, all while keeping fans happy and retaining your complete independence throughout.
Ksenia Petrova currently works at Embria (Fotostrana) as a monetization product manager. Previously, she worked at Wrike as a growth product manager and is the co-founder of DM Labs.
Discover how to increase ARPPU of your game by utilizing segmentation to search for the most profitable audience. Find out how we doubled our revenue from whales by price segmentation, pacs and triggers and what we learned from successful and failed experiments to increase ARPPU.
Cindy Mallory is a former enzyme researcher turned VR evangelist. Besides her day job in NYC as the emergent tech business analyst for a VR game studio, she is an active member of Women in VR, and Co-Chair of an international VRARA research committee.
VR's difficulties aren't only technical. In an emerging marketplace with slow consumer uptake, investors and developers are hesitant to commit resources to large-scale projects. Cindy Mallory, co-chair of the VRARA Co-Located Committee, will share research on multi-stream revenue models, analytical insights, and case studies on how the "Return of the Arcade" may well be the savior of VR gaming.
Juuso Myllyrinne has made a career in making things not only worth talking about, but which are also genuine business drivers. He's a manager with significant experience from conventional brand planning, digital strategy, product management, broadcast media and leading successful teams.
How to stockpile your organization against the undead of hordes of potential customers. Target for the headshot, recognize the value of a chainsaw versus a machete and understand that all your threats are not undead.
Sofia has been working in User Research for 10 years. In 2012, she joined Wargaming to research the behavior of players, and now she is one of the pioneers in Game User Research at Wargaming and in the CIS in general.
After the release of a game, it is quite easy to evaluate its success, and to break down the reasons for its failure or enormous popularity. But how can one find that out beforehand and fix the annoying blunders in the gameplay before they affect the success of the game? The truth lies in real research! At first, it seems that research is difficult, sounds too scientific, smells of library dust and has nothing to do with the drive of creating video games. In fact, that's quite the contrary! We'll talk about how to assess the potential of a game easily and timely—before its release!—and significantly improve it thanks to objective feedback from players.
Dr. Stafford's has approximately 16 years of experience as human factors professional. Dr. Stafford is currently a partner with Wargaming and acts as the senior user experience scientist in the USA.
The basics of usability, playtesting and research methods. This talk covers the core components of daily UX testing.
Paweł Strzelczyk graduated from Warsaw University and has 9 years of experience in QA, including 5 years as a QA Lab Manager. During this time, his QA team expanded from 60 to 180 people.
This presentation will cover several QA-related areas, including hiring new testers, training staff, the evaluation process, and maintaining a functional working atmosphere.
Worked as a translator for Ernst&Young, multinational professional services firm. Currently localizing several products for Wargaming, translating related documents.
Worked as a translator for Ernst&Young, multinational professional services firm. Currently localizing several products for Wargaming, translating related documents.
From 2004 to 2011, she worked as the manager of client, mobile, and web-game projects for the Bytex company. Since 2011, she headed the development department for some time. Currently, she is the head of the Bytex test lab.
To ensure thorough performance and stability testing, we devised a great variety of hardware that can be combined in any way the user chooses. Our decision was simple: to organize a test stand system right in our studio. This speech is about how we selected the proper hardware to conduct the tests mentioned above.
Connected and live games are her passion, and after working with some of the world’s most beloved pop cultural properties (The Matrix, Star Trek, Plants vs. Zombies), her goal now is to enable the next wave of creators to reach gamers across the globe.
How can we keep developers inspired as our projects get larger, our teams more dispersed, and our work more complex? A talented team can get the work done right, but leaders now more than ever must find ways to ensure the right work gets done. Let's look at how to apply several models of leadership to the problem set of software as a service, from servant leadership philosophy to decision-making frameworks.
Timur Haussila is a game lead at Supercell, based in Helsinki, Finland. During the past 5 years he has led the development of Hay Day, Boom Beach and number of other projects.
Timur Haussila, the game lead at the launch of both Hay Day and Boom Beach, will discuss how Supercell's culture of small, independent game teams and unique aversion to hierarchy and central control has been the foundation of this success. At Supercell, game teams have complete control over what kind of games they develop and how long they work on them for before deciding whether to launch or kill them and are not bound to the green light processes, external deadlines or budgetary restrictions. This system runs counter to the traditional studio goal of maximizing control and minimizing uncertainty, because Supercell believes that people produce the best results when they are given the responsibility to take risks and pursue the projects they truly believe in.
In the game development world where product is the king, the importance of sharing, communications, and building relationships is often underestimated. But in reality, the ability to network well, make an impression and build business connections matters just as much as the product. I’m going to share my experience, inspiration, and tips on how to build connections that lead to new partnerships and help in professional and personal development, and explain why the culture of sharing helps the industry grow.
Macro-Networking: How Organizations Can Collaborate, Build Capacity and Create Possibilities for Individuals / Panel Discussion Moderated by IGDA Finland
The panelists are all passionate individuals who are networking to build organizations to better serve individuals and while addressing problems faced by developer communities. Through collaboration both people and organizations can collectively learn from each others’ strengths and weaknesses on a macro scale. The participants on this panel strive to accelerate problem solving and capacity building by addressing the strengths and deficits in various cities and pairing people and organizations to learn from each other.
Jay Minn serves as the Executive Producer at Wargaming, publisher and developer of World of Tanks, and is currently focused on developing a next-generation platform and game operation technology.
Our 4C will explore, through a panel discussion, the difficulties of communicating across cultures, distance, and preconceptions for co-development efforts. Best practices will be recommended from hard-won practical experiences. Panelists will be both English and Russian speakers, sharing anecdotes, some funny and some tragic. The audience will walk away with a new chest of communication tools that will help them be successful in a multi-cultural development environment.
EPISODE V: CO-DEVELOPMENT STRIKES BACK. It has been a year since 4C Kiev. Development Directors, Vyacheslav Kostikov, Vyacheslav Gladyshev, and Jay Minn from Wargaming Platform have been engaging in active Global Development. Now with battle scars from the first release of a major product, they are ready to share their experiences and lessons learned. How can velocity be improved? Can the trio keep their team morale high with both communication and technical solutions? Gathering their courage and filled with new ideas and plans, they race toward 4C in St. Petersburg.
Maks Zylicki has more than 10 years’ experience in software development and around 7 years of making and launching game-related services at Wargaming.
My speech will cover how to build an effective web team for a game, covering its goal(s), processes and methodology, and the surrounding culture.
Rowland Cox is a career devotee to games and geekery. HD, mobile, board, card and tabletop—he loves the business of gaming and gaming hobbies. Rowland has a real knack for getting the best out of brands and big IPs, and how players' want to interact with them.
Extending Plants vs. Zombies from mobile to HD, and keeping the soul of the brand alive.
Alexander Schepilov manages big gaming and eSports activities at VKontakte. Before joining the social network, he worked with two the most popular eSports brands in the world—Dota 2 and League of Legends.
How to stay in touch with your players and viewers on VKontakte and stream games and tournaments on its video platform.
Sergey Streltsov stepped up to become the digital art director at OMD OM Group before finally joining Yoola in 2015 as global marketing director/head of content. Today, it’s one of the largest YouTube Multi-Channel Networks.
I’ll talk about the challenges, nuances, and opportunities you face when launching a project on YouTube.
A lawyer by training, Arseniy Ashomko has devoted his professional career to games, media and advertising, working at their intersection. Today, he is focused on the creation of new entertainment and information products.
What have social and multichannel media got to do with games? How can we take advantage of these media today?
Roberto Panchvidze is a co-owner of MDK, the company behind the highly popular Vkontakte community of the same name. Roberto is also the executive director of the MDK Creative advertising agency. He holds a degree in psychology.
We’ll discuss how to use creatives to promote video games.
My name is Eric Beyhl, and I’m the Lead Environment Artist on Prey at Arkane Studios in Austin, Texas. Previously, I’ve worked on titles in the Lost Planet, Ninja Gaiden, and F.E.A.R. franchises, and in my spare time, I am really into pushing the limits of VR!
In my talk, I’d like to show how my team and I created the world of Talos I, a contiguous space station with a deep history and deeper secrets. I want to focus particularly on the environmental storytelling my team and I executed in Prey in order to support and enhance the story and characters, and why other studios should make the effort to do the same in their games.
Andrey spent 5 years as a 3D modeler in the aircraft and jewelry industry. After that, he was a 2D artist in mobile games, and in 2014, he joined Wargaming where he now works as a senior 3D artist in tank department.
This lecture will cover the full cycle of tank production, touching on the complexity of creating a vehicle model that is based on many scattered photographs. It will also cover photogrammetry and how it is used in World of Tanks, where we work with complex UV layouts with strict requirements and camouflage creation, as well as methods for the rapid, high-poly modeling based on low poly models. Finally, the talk will look at techniques for quick normal map detailing, using ZBrush and Photoshop and our approach to tank texturing.
Alexander Shably graduated from the St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation. In 2012, he joined Wargaming St. Petersburg. Alexander takes interest in games, cars, blueprints, mechanics, and much more.
In this speech, I will cover the World of Warships’ ship model production pipeline and its evolution from the very beginning to today. I will examine the production queue, including technological features that were implemented into the process (such as quixel). You will get a close look at the flexibility of the modern ship production pipeline as well as insight regarding our one-year production plan.
Chad had produced several award-winning animated shorts and worked on some of the most successful franchises in the world, including: Mortal Kombat 2, WWF (Professional Wrestling), DreamWorks How to Train Your Dragon, Hasbro's Monopoly, Simon and Furby, and other multi-million dollar projects.
What it takes to reinvent a classic IP that is decades old for today's modern user and platforms. Discussing design, technology, innovation and grassroots marketing.
Florian Stronk is a former army officer and game industry veteran (EA, KONAMI). He is the co-founder of BRAVOCOMPANY, the London-based inventor of the “portable mancave” — competitive real-time, team-based multiplayer games that can be played in 4-minute sessions.
BRAVOCOMPANY’s tactical team combat game Forces of Freedom is one of the most downloaded games in the Google Play Early Access collection. In this talk, I am going to present what has been learned from this release.
Hidden values of SMM. What your audience can tell you? / Marianna Kryakvina, Head of Marketing Creative Mobile
Social Media is a powerful tool that allows to reach your audience and promote your products. But there is much more in it. In my talk I'll bring out a few case studies how smart SMM strategies improved all sides of business.
Filipp has a wide range of experience in software development, from large-scale enterprise solutions to mobile games. He is also a frequent speaker at conferences in Europe and Russia.
Recently, modern mobile devices have reached the level of gaming consoles in terms of hardware. Or, so manufacturers claim. We will find out whether this claim is true and, if so, why mobile games’ graphical levels are still far behind. We will talk about the horrors of mobile game developers and what solutions we use in our company. Be ready for some OpenGL, DirectX, and Vulkan.
Dr. Greg Street has been designing games for about 18 years. Prior to Riot, Greg was lead systems designer on World of Warcraft. Before that, he was a lead designer at Ensemble Studios/Microsoft working on the Age of Empires franchise. Before that, he was an oceanographer who studied crabs.
We want League of Legends to be a game that players can continue to play for many years. The company mission for Riot Games is to be player focused. Therefore, it is natural we work with players to figure out what is working well in League of Legends and what we still need to improve. This strategy includes keeping an open dialogue with players through social media and other methods of communication, but also surveying players to get their thoughts on the game, and validating that data with analytics to see how they are engaging with League. We also hope that by cultivating player trust, they believe that we are acting in their best interests and also give us the benefit of the doubt when something in League needs to be updated.
Diana works closely with both the marketing and development teams to increase MyTona's business growth and to widen its branding.
With the success in the Hidden Object genre, MyTona will share their experience on their journey climbing the top grossing chart, attaining the Top 20 Grossing list in the US for the iPad. The audience will gain insights while we look back at how the game Seekers Notes: Hidden Mystery has progressed from launch to today. This talk will help new gaming companies define their own formula for success.
Sergey Nikolenko is now a researcher in machine learning and analysis of algorithms, has published over 100 papers, in addition to teaching a well-known course in machine learning and many others.
Modern probabilistic models for team competitions are almost synonymous with TrueSkill developed by Microsoft Research. In this talk, we will identify the shortcomings of TrueSkill, introduce a new, improved version of it, and show how the model can be greatly simplified in the presence of more detailed information.
Alex began his career in 2007 as a gameplay programmer for Behaviour Interactive and later for Eidos Montreal. In 2010, Alex joined Ubisoft to build their next generation of destruction technology: RealBlast.
In Rainbow Six Siege, destruction is a core element of the gameplay and RealBlast is the technology behind it. In this talk, we will first present an overview of Ubisoft’s proprietary procedural destruction technology and how it was designed to be driven by gameplay while remaining realistic at the same time. Also, we will address some of the technical challenges we had to face to integrate this technology in a competitive online multiplayer game. Finally, since Rainbow Six Siege has been live for more than a year now, we will look at how the system has evolved along the seasons and the effort that was needed to improve and maintain such a complex system in a live environment.
This talk covers two of the major systems in IO Interactive's in-house engine, Glacier 2, powering the Hitman games. Part one describes the general architecture and the main concepts of the Resource System, an on-demand semi-distributed assets pipeline supporting hot-reloading. Part two covers the Entity System (i.e. our game objects), the workflows it enables, and how it seamlessly integrates with the Resource System.
Bronislaw’s career started with EPAM and Itransition where he worked as a Java/C++ programmer. In 2008, he was employed by Wargaming as a Junior Generalist Programmer. Later, his long-held dream of working with computer graphics inspired Bronislaw to grow in this field and eventually become the Render Team Lead.
In my speech, I will give an overview of new technologies that took World of Tanks graphics to new heights. I will also explain how these technologies enable us to maintain the same level of graphics on different PC configurations (from older to cutting-edge hardware).
Hans Rönnbäck studied as an electronics engineer and later for a degree in computer science. At Paradox, he has worked on titles like Magicka 2, Stellaris, and Pillars of Eternity, primarily with network code and console porting.
Creating a network communication solution poses a variety of technical problems needing to be solved. Different types of games all have their own needs when it comes to latency, throughput, and reliability. Establishing peer-to-peer connections often requires traversing firewalls and handling odd routing scenarios. Finding game sessions require mechanics for publishing and searching for desired sessions. All of this needs to work seamlessly, on multiple hardware platforms and at the same time, and be relatively easy to integrate into your game engine of choice. This presentation will be a walkthrough of how we defined our goals and requirements, which problems arose, and how we solved them.
Jean-Phillippe Morel has been in the games industry for over 14 years, the last 10 of which he spent at Ubisoft building engine-related technologies for multiple titles. From Prince of Persia to Rainbow Six Siege, Morel has been a driving force in shaping the world-class engine that powers them.
Creating, building and packaging data define how our hard work reaches our players. Back when games where ship-and-forget, it was simple. With a game that is live, constant patching is a new reality. In this talk, we will go through the unique process of managing all the constraints imposed by building and running the AAA live game that is Rainbow Six Siege.
Peter Sikachev has over 5 years of experience in AAA games development as a Graphics Programmer. He shipped Skyforge,
Thief, Deus Ex: Mankind Divided, and Rise of the Tomb Raider and worked on the upcoming Red Dead Redemption 2.
This talk presents a novel method for rendering volumetric effects that allows holistic shading of both solid and transparent objects. Applications of the proposed method include: volumetric fog, particle shadowing and self-shadowing and more. DPTR involves a minimal overhead and only requires DirectX 10.1 feature level support for the effective implementation.
At Wargaming, Maksim worked on various World of Tanks projects, including Clans, Global Map 2.0 and Platform services. In his current role, Maksim leads the World of Tanks Server Team.
This is a retrospective of the server tech evolution of a AAA MMO during different phases of a game life cycle: development, release, fast growth, expansion and maintenance. It will give an idea of the key technical things to focus on under different circumstances and conditions.
Chris Cataldi is a founder and COO of Genvid Technologies, a New York-based startup focused on building a suite of technologies that enable game makers to create new types of massively social, always-on, highly interactive game experiences.
On any given day, more people interact with games in more ways than ever before. Even non-interactive gaming videos are being watched more than HBO, Netflix, and ESPN combined. This session will explore how the gaming industry has grown, and will continue to grow by fully realizing the potential of cutting-edge technology, evolving business models, and enabling new kinds of experiences. We will focus on how tomorrow's technological advancements (5G, local & remote rendering, etc.) will be instrumental to transitioning today’s buzzwords like eSports into tomorrow’s mainstream entertainment.
Illia Komsa started his career in 2012 as a HTML coder. In 2013, he joined Wargaming to develop web-based business applications, where he fell in love with browser technologies. After 2 years of developing MMORTS prototypes, he is currently working on browser-based additional game modes for World of Tanks.
When you are asked to name any browser game, you will probably name agar.io or Combats.ru—old-style 2D or even text-based games. But modern browsers have much more potential than that—fast 3D, great cross-platform abilities, and lots of other stuff—even AR and VR. Let's see what games we can create today with modern browser technologies.
Gavin Longhurst has worked in broadcast, animation production, graphics development, robotics, games middleware and development. At Wargaming, he works on commercializing efforts across the company.
Gamer audiences are now a thing—we are in the first steps of a spectator revolution. Delve into advanced spectator concepts and business models around eSports, streaming and the unknown audience economy.
Veli-Pekka Kokkonen has been intrigued by the mixture of art and technology for his entire life. He is always searching for new ways to create and experience digital content, and driving game engines and tools forward to the future.
Creating immersive worlds in VR has its own unique problems, and not all designs from traditional 3D games are suitable. In this talk, we look into the design challenges encountered while making Downward Spiral: Prologue.
Alexander is responsible for running special projects on the edge of innovations, biz-dev, corporate social responsibility and PR, building experiences that bridge new media, VR/AR, and next gen storymaking for a global audience of millions.
Futuristic technologies enter our lives no matter what, and these can be harnessed to enhance creative storytelling. Let's have a conversation about how brands will benefit from new media in the near future, combining creativity, technology, and the meaningful use of communication tools to strengthen brand positioning, and boosting dialogue with the community and media.
Vitaliy Borodovsky is a game developer who has been passionate about creating games and engines for more than 15 years. The co-founder of DAVA Consulting, he is the technical director of DAVA Studio, Wargaming.
This is the story of a small indie studio of 20 people. We created a project that went on to become a major hit against all the predictions of industry experts. It allowed the studio to grow and join Wargaming, becoming a driver of mobile business and one of the most successful gaming companies of the last decade in the session-based FPS niche of the mobile market.
Improbable is a London-based technology company creating a technology for distributed, real-time, persistent simulations. Robert Whitehead founded the company in 2012 with fellow Cambridge graduate Herman Narula. Today, it employs 200 people in London and San Francisco.
Improbable founder Rob Whitehead explores the hidden technical challenges of building giant distributed games like World's Adrift or Chronicles of Elyria. He'll look at the design choice of monolithic game engines versus specialized engine elements, how to distribute the load across thousands of instances of Unity or Unreal Engine.
Dimitri Mikhalchuk, CEO of Teslasuit, is engaged in the development of innovative technology — virtual reality suit, Teslasuit. He has a strong and deep background in business development, electronics, robotics, smart home automation, and marketing.
The overview of the latest technologies in wearable electronics, it’s impact on our everyday lives and where will it will lead us. Wearable computers in gaming and other applications.
Проблематика, особенности и возможности для запуска проектов на YouTube.
Мы поговорим о том, зачем играм нужны социальные сети и мультиканальные медиа и как их эффективно использовать сегодня.
Поговорим о том, как использовать креатив при продвижении игровых продуктов.
Поговорим о том, как организовать общение с комьюнити, стримить игры и турниры, используя возможности «ВКонтакте».
Как изобрести заново классическую игру, которой десятки лет, подать ее сегодняшним игрокам и издать на современных платформах. Мы будем обсуждать дизайн, технологии, инновации и народный маркетинг.
В этом выступлении я расскажу о том, как Reforged Studios оптимизировала потоковый рендеринг под Metal API. Мы подробнее остановимся на решениях, использовавшихся для обработки отдельно взятого кадра, и увидим, какой тип оптимизации применяется для различных его зон.
Жеферсон Валарадес является руководителем мобильного направления и вице-президентом по разработке в американском отделении компании Bandai Namco Entertainment. В своем выступлении он обсудит с аудиторией самые насущные вопросы игрового мира.
Я расскажу о проекте, который выстрелил, несмотря на скептические отзывы не последних в индустрии экспертов. Успех World of Tanks Blitz помог маленькой студии из 20 человек вырасти в одного из ведущих и наиболее успешных разработчиков последнего десятилетия в жанре сессионных мобильных шутеров от первого лица.
Forces of Freedom, командная тактическая игра BRAVOCOMPANY, — одна из самых загружаемых в секции Early Access на Google Play. В своем выступлении я расскажу о том, что мы вынесли из этого релиза.
Современные мобильные устройства, как утверждают их изготовители, сравнялись по производительности с игровыми приставками. Мы разберемся, правда ли это; и если это так, то почему тогда мобильная игровая графика сильно отстает от консольной. Мы поговорим об ужасах, преследующих разработчиков мобильных игр, и о том, какими способами наша компания справляется с ними. В выступлении будут упоминаться OpenGL, DirectX и Vulkan.
Социальные медиа - это мощный инструмент, который позволяет охватить вашу аудиторию и продвигать ваши продукты. Но в новых медиа таится много другого. В своем выступлении я расскажу о нескольких примерах того, как умные стратегии SMM улучшают все стороны бизнеса.
История разработки двух игровых проектов: первый был отменен, у второго — более 70 миллионов установок на сегодняшний день.
Работать над играми — сбывшаяся мечта многих в индустрии. Великие игры чаще всего создаются талантливыми и увлеченными людьми. Но у работы с командой горящих своим делом ярких личностей есть как плюсы, так и минусы; в таком коллективе всегда есть люди с разным складом ума — и инженерным, и артистическим. Я был продюсером более чем 40 игр для разных платформ (мобильные устройства, Steam, XBox, PlayStation, Facebook) и могу подробно раскрыть свою методику управления талантливыми энтузиастами с самым разным происхождением и профессиональным опытом.
Прошел год с 4C в Киеве. Директоры по развитию Вячеслав Костиков, Вячеслав Гладышев и Джей Минн из Wargaming Platform активно участвуют в Глобальной разработке. Теперь с боевыми шрамами от первого выпуска крупного продукта они готовы поделиться своим опытом и извлеченными уроками.
В мире геймдева, где балом правит продукт, значение обмена знаниями, коммуникации и установления крепких отношений нередко отходит на второй план. Но в реальности способность налаживать связи, производить впечатление и строить деловые взаимоотношения имеет не меньшее значение, чем сам продукт. В этом выступлении я хочу поделиться своим опытом, а также научить созданию таких деловых связей, которые впоследствии перерастают в партнерство и попутно обогащают ваш профессиональный и личный опыт. Я также попытаюсь показать, как культура обмена знаниями способствует росту индустрии.