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PWAs: building bridges to mobile, desktop, and native

Jenny Gove
Mobile Payments UX Lead at Google
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2018 Google I/O
May 8, 2018, Mountain View, USA
2018 Google I/O
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PWAs: building bridges to mobile, desktop, and native
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About speakers

Jenny Gove
Mobile Payments UX Lead at Google
Pete LePage
Developer Advocate at Google

Jenny Gove is a user experience research lead at Google, where she conducts research on device use. Jenny's current area of focus is online Payments. Previously Jenny managed the Apps, Social, and Ads Design Research teams at Google. Prior affiliations includes Sun Microsystems, Zadu, and the Open University, UK. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Southampton in the UK.

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Pete is a developer advocate on the Web team at Google, helping web developers build the next generation of Web Apps. He likes taking the sharp edges off bleeding edge technologies and making it easy for developers to use them.

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About the talk

Progressive Web Apps (PWAs) enable fast, integrated, reliable, and engaging web experiences. Come and learn how browser vendors are enabling developers to use the web to build installable desktop applications and store-distributed mobile apps, as well as how Google is launching its own PWAs at scale.

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Good afternoon, everyone. I'm Jenny and I'm a US Visa to hear it Google user experience as a developer advocate. 7 lots of reasons to love the web for me. It's the scale. It can reach uses all around the world on almost any device and the only thing they need is a brown so it's easy to use and easy to share does nothing to install. It's an open ecosystem that anyone can use or bailed on. For the past few years. We've been talking a lot about Progressive web apps pwa to buy a new set of capabilities that allow

us to ride the clay and the user experience. We provide till I uses we think it's a great experience is based on full sentence. Fast Fix payment method fast and feel fast. This is more than just about how fast something goes across the network. But also how long it takes us to get useful content onto the screen. Experience also needs to fill integrated. In other words. It needs to feel natural to the uses device. It needs to launch in the same way. The other salons on that device and take advantage of the

capabilities of the device in the same way the other apps to sample using the payment request API to make payments to snap. I need experience must be reliable. It should always wet because when it doesn't work when it loads too slowly breaks at user experience and it really destroys use a trust even here in the Bay Area Believe It or Not There are areas with poor cell coverage and never people here in the US that have to use sign up to get online and worldwide more than 60% of cell phones when switching networks. So creating a

reliable experience is crucial. How to paint up anyway is an engaging experience and not engaging experience. At the very beginning with a delightful fast run experience for the user. It continues throughout all of your critical cherniss tire that they work perfectly without friction. I didn't get to experience uses the magic of the web. It's indexable searchable linkable and terrible experiences timely and relevant and its precise because it count for you to contacts and what matters to them

now. Animal Visa but especially on making your experience engaging you should work closely with you as professionals use a research design has to identify those critical and is Pollo experience. This includes basic experiences that imperative to get right things like asking for permission only when you need it the first open need to ask for it at that point. And asking people to sign up and to sign in at the right time when they appropriately invested in the top that they're doing and there's something in it for them to gain from doing so not need something for your business

the game. Other very important flows to get write a payment experiences that we had needed to idea. These have to be quick and easy on frictionless make it easy for the customers to give you money for them to be delighted not frustrated by that experience. I'm going to be covering this more on Thursday at 10:30 on stage 7 in another to Google pay best practices for great payment experiences. And of course removing fiction informed with talked a lot about performance of phones before and the user experience of them, but they're still really plenty

of experience is on the way. We did at least an order and that was conducted in Europe on 400 top sites. And we found that 42% of the sites from across 15 countries didn't show the appropriate keyboard for the input type that was needed this causes of cool significant friction. That was quite a surprise to us. It's so many it's a best practice that's been out there for a long time at this point shouldn't be called a standard practice like a lot of the time people

on getting them, right? We also found that 27% of sight didn't clearly identify which field for optional and that causes and uses for example, first of all these it might be overwhelmed just by the number of fails that they have to fill it when that's actually not true and second. They might get hung up on trying to complete an experience that actually no applicable to them. Give up entirely. So it's critical to make sure you're following all these best practices of web design using invited but tight using feet to the perfectly. We have a

set of principles are we developed conducting extensive research that can help guide you to his creation, when gauging user experience so you can find those... We often refer to this whole idea as fire fast integrated reliable and engaging and the key to building those fast and reliable experiences is service workers service workers are Now supported in every modern browser including Firefly or Safari and Edge back in March and with the recent update to Edge just last week there now supported there too. Browser vendors are also adding

all kinds of new support for new capabilities that really enhance the user experience Edge. Push notifications and interesting stuff with the add to homescreen through their Store Firefox now has support for push notifications and is working on the web authentication apis and Safari is also working on those new web authentication API. So let's take a look at the very successful pwa that was launched by the team at Starbucks. It takes advantage of many of the new capabilities and brings a mountain web experience to that customer.

It makes it easy to Brown's the minion customized and place an order or pay for an order in Seoul. All right, so I'm going to go over here. And I'm going to go to Starbucks. All right, and then I'm going to sign it and it should sign in automatically. I'm using Pizza count to buy me a coffee and hair with signed in and then I'm going to Add it to the home screen hair so I can add that and let me shut up. Inhibits being added to home screen. So this is my Progressive web app. Now, I'm going to launch it from here. Okay. So now I'm going to order my

coffee. So it's asking me if I want to collect patient because it knows I'm going to be browsing and looking for order. So, let's see. I think I'll have a coffee the company's if it's going to actually Maybe I'll go for an Americano. Alright, so it wants me to have a grande. I think I'll make that a bit smaller. Take a toll. I'm going to go for a splash of milk. And I think a little bit of sugar. All right. So that's I thoughts of my order and I can change the location here if I want to this is my name is so I'm going to confirm the store at that to my

order order to now it won't be okay and take a look so that they are actually and I can check out from there so I couldn't pick them up right so. Now that's changed but I was somewhere where I didn't have a good connection. So I'm going to put this into airplane mode. And this happened to me recently. Actually I visited London which is where I'm from the UK and I was going to see a friend. It says on the way but I was on the chew and I had some kind of my hands I could actually browse the

menu here and see what I wanted to order on the way. So that was a pretty cool experience. And so it's able to do that so I can make good use of my time when I want to do that. So these expenses to extend even two payments. So should I be somewhere I don't have a connection say I'm visiting a different country where I didn't have a connection and I go into the store and I want to pay send Starbucks is also cashed my payment details so that I'm able to

pay in the store right there. So that Starbucks Progressive web app experience. I got to get back to fly. Service improved user experience has really paid off the Starbucks one of the ways with a measure of success is by the number of daily and monthly active users. And that's more than doubled from that previous experience. So it's really paying off uses of placing more orders to the weather with the number of orders growing by 12% week-over-week. I'm at at Starbucks took a responsive approach. I made sure that this worked nicely

on desktop as well. That's seeing desktop uses. He was in the weather in order to order ahead so that the drink is ready when they get there. FedEx go back to Belfast integrated reliable and engaging principles to see why the Starbucks app has been so successful. So your sight have to be fun you seen this number for Master for probably many times. But if your site takes more than 3 seconds to load you've lost more than half of your uses. Your site not only has to load fast. It needs to feel like it like that on the way Starbucks cuz this is

the fuse placeholder content that you can stay here until the actual content is loaded. So at first glance it looks like things have started to load to the user ID Place holder the really quickly replace you won't even see or be aware if those placeholder. Another effect of that fast experience is a navigation between Pages navigation spill false and they offer it never feels like the page does a full reloj does it kind of turn on the web navigation shouldn't rely only on the

network, but instead everything should be Precast. I'm ready to go. So to reduce the friction of sign in Starbucks uses the credential management API, which makes sign in as simple as a one tap thing. It's a pretty exciting new API and I just going to be talking a lot more about it in his talk on Thursday called sign up and sign in on the web to definitely check that one out. And as you can see we got the ads on home screen. We didn't reset the phone properly. I'm sorry. That was my fault. I was responsible for that. But you get the add to

homescreen prompt. They're so bad this to their home screen when the user ads your Progressive web app to their home screen on Android Chrome automatically creates an APK for you, which we sometimes referred to as a web APK web APK means that your aunt shows up not only on home screen, but they're in the launcher and in your settings so that you can go in and see. Where are the permissions are you can see how much storage is being used and so forth. Today's Chrome automatically will show that add to homescreen prompt when the

site is not already installed the users interacted with the site for about 30 seconds and it meets the TWA criteria, which means that it's not a web app manifest a service worker with a fence event. Of course, the easiest way to test that is to use lighthouse. In fact, we literally have a lighthouse set up in the web tent if you haven't gone over there and seen it where you can go and run your site through it and talk with folks on the web team to understand what's going on. There's also a talk tomorrow on Lighthouse and the Chrome ux report that'll go into a lot

more detail on how you can use these tools. Today before Chrome shows the add to homescreen prompt. It's going to fire a before install prompt prevent rollover when that prompt appears for example in the Starbucks experience. They don't want that prompt to show up. If I'm in the middle of ordering a drink, right you want the user to finish what they're doing and then say Oh, hey add this to your home screen. You don't want to distract the order the user. So in the default event handler, what you do is save a

reference to the event and call prevent default on it prevent default says, hey don't don't show up and you can save that event. So that in a moment when you're ready to show it when you're like, this is a useful time for this to to be to be visible. You can call prompt on that saved event. You can also tell what a user has added your app to the home screen by listening for the app installed event. And so the app installed that will tell you that hate. Yes, they clicked. I want to install this and Chrome or whatever browser was successfully added able to add it to the users

home screen. Now, that's today Chrome is going to automatically show you the prompt but it's changing. All right starting in Chrome 68 Chrome is no longer going to show that prompt automatically instead. You're going to need to listen to that for that before install prompt event. Then rigger The Prompt by calling prompt on it on that saved event with a user gesture. All right now to make the experience reliable Starbucks used work box with a combination of free cashing

and run time passing strategies by Creek housing their content. They were able to ensure that the key resources that the app needed to run were always there. They wouldn't have to wait for the network as the user uses the app. They're able to cash additional content as they navigate around. Placing an order offline would be kind of amazing but it's impossible. Right? So instead what they allow user to do is as we showed earlier as you can pay for your order, they use indexeddb to store information about the users previous orders about the nearby stores that

they've gone to and their payment details so that that can always come up and always be available. Topics focused on the use of experience to make the progressive web app engaging any possible options available. Stop. It's paid attention to the fundamental details like the navigation stuck making sure that the back button always does the right thing for example, navigating down several pages to navigate step by step back out rather than jumping back to the home screen. Mother abandon

page. Jamaican spinach feel more alive the Starbucks Peter the uae's is content specific animations and messaging to provide feedback to the user. For example after cooking at the order. It shows a toast letting me know that it's been added to my bank. As you can see through creating a fast integrated reliable and engaging a progressive web app Starbucks to put that customers fast and developing an experience that meets that uses where they are in the contacts that they live they what they pray to make it simply a convenient and delightful

experience in order to order a favorite drink. Alright, so have we burned that fire acronym in your head yet? Okay. I got a couple more set up for you. So be ready in any event a bunch of teams a Google have been working on building their own Progressive web apps Google search uses a progressive web app to make it possible for users to ask questions when they're offline and then provide an answer once they've reconnected. It uses service workers background sync and push notifications

by using service workers. They were able to reduce the number of external Javascript request by nearly 50%. They were able to reduce the number of user interactions that were delayed by loading JavaScript by 6% So they saw a pretty good performance Improvement. There's also bulletin, which is a new way to create and share hyperlocal stories and it's all built around. Progressive web app it's a tiny fraction of the size of a native app and it's got 100% of the functionality. They do some really neat stuff with a media capture API that you can take a

picture or take a video and then post it up to bulletin and sharing is as simple as stirring a URL. End the maps team recently shipped a progressive web app. They sell Progressive web apps as a way to radically improve the experience for their users on low and devices or in limited or flaky Network conditions previously many of these users were getting us so-called white experience that was designed with Mobile in mind, but it didn't take advantage of a lot of the new capabilities that Progressive web apps has to offer the progressive web app doesn't

have feature parity with their native app, but instead centers around for key user Journeys again, see that that bad pun. Yeah. I told you there were a few important first. They wanted to make it easy for users to see their location and nearby Landmark so that they could get a sense of where they are. Second they wanted to make it easy to find places with either search or on a map. Third. They wanted to make it easy to see what was nearby and help them discover new places. And finally they wanted to make it easy to get directions so

that they could figure out how to get to those places that they've discovered and users are using it even more the new experience is seeing 20% more successful page loads compared to the previous experience. Specifically targeting low-end devices, but the team really had to put that extra effort into making sure that everything was fast performance was prioritized from the beginning by establishing code size load time and memory benchmarks that could be measured with every single commit. They use Chrome Dev tools to tune memory and

performance and tested on slow networks always looking for any regression. And of course they needed to make sure that it worked reliably even on those flaky networks. So they set a goal to be mindful of how much data that they were using and try and keep that in check. So that for users on expensive data plans. They wouldn't consume too much of their data. So let's take a look at the maps Progressive web app. so all opened up here and I've already installed it on here. You can see that I guess we should come out of

airplane mode that would be kind of helpful give you a little indication of whether you're online or not. So I can see this looks like the standard Maps experiences. Maybe not quite as shiny but I'm going to go check out and try and find a place that I've been once or twice before sports page. It pops up really quickly almost instantly with the information. It's not that standard page view so I can see information about the things that I'm looking for and if I clear this out and then go into offline mode.

Even though I'm offline it remembers the places never doubt it remembers the places that I've been to before so that if I click on sports page that's all still there and it's cashed in an index DB table so that it's always there and ready to go so we can switch back to the the slides great. So with the previous Maps experience, they really focus to put as much data as possible into that initial HTTP request so that they could reduce the number of requests that had to be made for the app to start the JavaScript and HTML templates stuff that they

might need for one thing but not for something else. They wanted to have everything there so that they could get started right away with their Progressive web. They've refactor the code and I'm really super fine. Grain modules that are only served by the service worker when they're needed to unlike the traditional experience. Only loads and runs the code that's needed. If the user doesn't need directions. It doesn't have to load or execute that code meaning everything runs. Just that much snappier. Many of the users are on flaky or 2G

networks, or they've got expenses data plans and they turn their data on and off fairly frequently and the maps that experience for them work reliably, no matter what their network connection was like to achieve that they use service workers to cash the core at Shell of their ass and so they can eliminate the network for that initial stuff. But then they started to think about how they were going to store. The map tiles map tiles are about somewhere between 10 and 20 k each and you imagine if you pan and zoom you can start to load a

lot of them. And in fact, you can load like dozens of them by panting and zooming pretty quickly and those map tiles change frequently. Imagine his new business is open and close as things change with map tiles are constantly in flux. So storing those tiles using the cash as a p I was going to be a little bit complex for what they wanted to accomplish in in V1. And so what they decided to do is use the browser cache, but they did it in a really neat way as each tile is successfully loaded they store the details of that

tile in an index DB table so later when the browser goes to get it again. The service worker regenerates the URL based on the version information and is able to go back to the browser cache and in most cases is able to pull that tile back from the browser cache again for things like searches directions and that kind of stuff all of that is saved in indexeddb. So that's always there on the user's device. Even if they're offline. To help eliminate some of the jaenke-annis that is possible and reduce the amount of

Graphics memory that's used the used the layers panel and chrome Dev tools to identify elements that were off screen and remove them from the Dom. That also shows them really useful. If you go into 3D mode the stacking context of your page. If you're trying to figure out what's going on with some of the layers and what's going on there. It's a really useful to Willits up one of my favorite ones that I've just recently started playing with but it's been around for a while. They also decided to limit the amount of transparency and dropped out box Shadows that they have.

So for example, the search box that you see up there is a full-width element in the normal experience. It's a floating element that's got the map tiles drawn behind it. So in this case, they don't have to draw the map tiles behind it or anything like that. They're able to save a bunch of memory. One of the biggest challenges that they faced in building a progressive web app was that the storage apis horscope to the origin and I didn't realize this but Maps is actually google.com. It's not their fault maps. Google.com. So that means that shares the same storage as

obviously Maps but also search and Chrome default new tab page any service that Google serves is going to share that says they have to be really careful not to step on other folks toes. As a developer, one of my favorite tools is the Clear Sight data button at remove the service workers gets you back all the save data and and lets you start from zero and of course that includes the cookies. As I was digging into this to try and figure out what was going on. I kept getting signed out of mail and I couldn't figure out why and then I went.

Oh, yeah clearing. My cookies signs me out of all my mail was a bit of a pain in the butt. Okay, so we tribute a lot of the progression of progressive web app to mobile. I'm mobile has really been the key focus of the development for Progressive today. But while the credits of Mabel has been strong we mustn't forget that desktop usage. Isn't that still growing as you can see in this truck have describe this graph shows that mobile phone use peaks in the morning and the evening and tablet also has significant use in the evening time that stop

usage is more evenly distributed throughout the day when most people are at work and it's mainly led by productivity apps many of the cats. We use everyday for a compass group messaging apps like flight and chat a music streaming apps like Google music with Spotify. Having that installed native feel, very important to use as because it gives them the confidence that the Applebee's fast integrated reliable and engaging to achieve this something that has have no desktop after using web Technologies and then use the framework that embed certification in a

custom-built web browser. In fact, that's what Spotify does today. But it feels kind of redundant to ship an entire browser. Angel code, especially given that the user already has a browser on that machine. Not only have you significantly increase the size of your download, but you now have to keep that vendoring stock up today. You have to have security vulnerabilities and more. So you're responsible for your app and maintaining that rendering in the sky. There is a better way to create desktop web app and with a smaller footprint

and that emphasizes user experience as well. And that's to deliver a pwa for desktop. You just have high expectations, but that's how I'm progressing on the desktop also need to be fast integrated reliable engaging you can say that with me now. I'm sure that means they launched from the same place as a desktop alone. So that's familiar to users, but they also a window so they look like That's why we're working to bring Progressive web apps to desktop the demo to show you today is on Chrome OS but work is

already well underway to support Windows on Mac as well. I'm Windows uses can already installed Progressive web apps through the Microsoft store. So that take a look more closely at the flowing Spotify desktop pwa. I'm going to move to this pixel up now. So let's go to Spotify. So now I'm going to open my web player. And you'll see here that it asked me if I want to install the app. So I'm going to say yes, and then this comes up I can kick it still hand. If you look

closely you'll see it land on myself down here that was pretty quick right now, and I'm just going to close that out and show you how easy it is to launch it as if it was my beautiful wife expects parents here. I heard about that tomorrow night. Did you head Justice excited? All right. Come on. Maybe you should just keep going. I just close the window. Shop for me. So you saw that it was in that I can play. You can see the install app is gone here because now I'm in that Progressive

and it's using the Hall of the screen. It's in the window and it's a just a great experience that I can watch directly back from my shelf getting started isn't different than what you're already doing. This is not like it's a whole new class of apps or anything like that all of the work that you've already done for your existing Progressive web apps still applies service workers make it fast and reliable. You can use push notifications to keep users up today and the add to homescreen uses the same set of criteria

as it does on mobile. The only real difference is that instead of running it in a browser tab, it's running in and out window with app Windows there no tabs or address bar. It's just your app and it's optimized for the needs of amps with more flexible window organization. App Windows also make it really easy to switch between Windows by Alt tabbing. I want to point out a couple of things in the app window that I think are kind of interesting as I mentioned. It takes up the full screen. You've got the standard minimize maximize as you'd expect and on Chrome OS

the title bar is themed based on the Manifest colors. Speaking of the weather at manifest. I do want to recommend that you future-proof your apps by adding the scope property dsco property to find the set of URLs that the browser is going to consider within your you are within your app. If you leave that set of you or else it'll bounce you out to a to a browser tab. This is really important because in the future this is going to be used for determining Behavior, like link cats ring within the app men or

within the menu. There's also that app menu there that gives you the URL and a bunch of other sort of useful things that you want to get into. Now that was some unique design considerations you need to take into account for building desktop Progressive web app things that don't necessarily always apply to Progressive web apps on mobile devices from the desktop have to have access to significantly larger screen real estate content with extra margin level, but you said there's no face by creating you break point. So why does he need some applications really

benefit from that white of you? When thinking about your breakpoints think about how users will usual at and how they might be sized it and the weather at a large when they might show me a 7-day forecast then at the window get Moana instead of shrinking everything down. I might get a 5-day forecast as it continues to get smaller content my Shuffle around I can still see that same content is just optimized for small a display might be really helpful shows me only the current conditions on a music player might show image of

the current songs on the button needed to change the song. You can take this idea of a responsive design to the next level 2 support convertibles like the pixel before the surface. When switch to tablet mode these devices make me active window full screen and depending on how they use a hose the device may be the landscape or portrait. So you need to focus on getting responsive design might and that's what matters here besides the window or the device has done. So because it's it's switch to tablet mode responsive design is critical to

a successful desktop Progressive web app experience. The app window on desktop open so many new possibilities. So what if I do want to sign up and take a responsive approach to ask you break points for larger screens support landscape or portrait view screen or not and wax wife nicely with that is virtual keyboard. I want tonight. Well if my check was already working on support for Windows and Mac and for all the platforms. We looking on adding support for keyboard shortcut so that you can provide your own functionality fighting for the launcher icon so that you can let

users know about important events that you don't want to display a full notification for Angelique capturing opening the installed pwa when the user clicks on a link that needs to be handled by the app. So keep an eye out for announcements on the Caribbean blog that you see here and stop playing with it today. Alright, so we have about a minute and a half left to cover the last section. So I'm going to go really fast. I won't actually go that fast I'll cover the key stuff will get this out in another video, but for many users having an app available in the store

is really critical to your business and we know that there are a lot of cases where this makes sense and that it makes sense to integrate your web content into your native app today. You can do this using either a web view or custom tabs and it has its own benefits and drawbacks. I won't go through this right now and you know the sort of skip through this so that we can get into a little of the fun details we've heard from you that one of the things you want is to be able to show web content in your native app, but have a lot more control over it and trusted

web activities allows you to integrate that experience their powered by custom tabs, which means that your content is rendered by the users up today browser. This isn't a mechanism simply to just wrap your website and throw it up on to the Play Store a simple mistake can cause some kind of drastic problems trusted web activities are designed to make it possible for you to use the investment. You've made in your web app inside of your Android native app. There are a couple of permits they must be done as first party contents of the content has to be

yours. You need to add an intent filter in your manifest and you need to pass the same Progressive web app criteria as we've talked about earlier. And of course, you need to follow the standard Play Store guidelines. So there's four things that you need to do while essentially to but will call them sort of for set up a set of digital asset links and that allows you to prove that you're content belongs to you on the web and then create the activity. The code is here. I will we will get this up. In fact, I'll

show you I'll take you to the link. We're all of the details already are. Can I go back one slide, please story. All right, if you go to G. Cohen trusted web activities all of the notes for this including all of the code to get started on this is right up there so you can get to the party tonight. So I'm bringing this all together. You've seen that I have stopped at Progressive web app. What does team at Starbucks have taken care of those fundamentals as well as the Delight has to bring

a more convenient and experience and great Deeds of used to that consumers. We stay in-house Google is building Progressive web apps bulletin and improved access to Castle design in use of window. And finally you've heard about how you can integrate your pwa into your native. I stopped integrated reliable engaging and in this that transforming the web on mobile and on desktop, if you remember three things, what up, and listen for that before and still prompt event call show on it. Go try desktop Progressive web apps

and out of scope, and if you've got an existing Android app go take a look at trusted web activities. Thanks everybody. Please fill out the feedback form. Thank you.

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