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OpenThread: Bringing the Internet to low-power IoT devices

Jonathan Hui
Principal Software Engineer at Google
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2018 Google I/O
May 8, 2018, Mountain View, USA
2018 Google I/O
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OpenThread: Bringing the Internet to low-power IoT devices
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About speakers

Jonathan Hui
Principal Software Engineer at Google
Vaas Krishnamurthy
Staff Software Engineer at Google

Jonathan Hui is a principal software engineer and maintainer of OpenThread. Prior to Google, he worked at Cisco and built some of the world's largest IPv6 mesh networks. He delivered the world's first 6LoWPAN networks at Arch Rock before its acquisition by Cisco. Jonathan has also been deeply involved in standards bodies (IETF, IEEE, Thread Group, and Wi-Sun) and coauthored foundational specifications related to IPv6 in low-power wireless networks. He is also a co-inventor on 176 USPTO issued patents. Jonat

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Vaas is an embedded software engineer specializing in 802.15.4. She has enabled OpenThread on several Nest products. Her key focus is on RF performance, vendor engagement and radio communication on Nest products such as Protect, Thermostat, Secure and Cams. Prior to this, she has worked at IoT startups spanning Zigbee Smart Energy, lighting control and solar panels. Vaas earned a Masters degree in EE at UC Boulder.

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About the talk

Thread is a secure, reliable, IPv6-based mesh networking protocol designed for connecting battery-powered devices. OpenThread released by Nest is an open-source implementation of Thread, making the same technology used in Nest products more broadly available to developers. OpenThread supports a variety of chipsets and product platforms such as Android Things, Linux, and RTOS. This talk will provide a brief overview of Thread and how developers can quickly build IoT solutions using OpenThread.

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Hi everyone. Good morning. Thank you all for joining us for our talk on open for today. We are very excited to be here and we hope the session will be very useful to you. All. My name is vas krishnamoorthy. I'm an embedded software engineer at 9. And I'm Jonathan Queen principal software engineer leading the open thread across nest in Google. Intercession, we will introduce to you thread a low-power Mesh networking protocol for connecting your iot devices open thread and open source implementation of that thread protocol and how you as developers can start using open

thread to build connected iot devices. Valtrex history starts at Nest where our primary focus was to build products and solutions that keep you comfortable while reducing your energy consumption as well as improving the security and safety of you and your home. Now in order to achieve that Vision, we wanted our products to be able to communicate directly with each other with cloud services and directly with the end-user the other mobile devices. And so we went looking for a conductivity technology that could satisfy those needs. And in doing so we set out

a number of requirements. The first was that I had to support the Internet Protocol or it because we wanted to build solutions that support a single application layer communicating across multiple link Technologies such a cellular in Wi-Fi. It needed to be scalable because we wanted to build networks that had hundreds of those it needed to be resilient because we wanted to support Safety and Security applications or devices can communicate even when devices fail or when main power is lost. It needed to be low power cuz we wanted battery-powered devices the last four years on very small

batteries. And of course it needed to be secure. But as we went looking for an existing connectivity technology, we actually could not find a single technology that satisfied all of those requirements. The furthermore as we were talking with others in the industry. We found that many others actually share the same concern. So in July of 2014 Nest along with those other companies started the thread group that's right group is a nonprofit organization with more than 100 number companies from around the world. The front group is responsible for defining

and maintaining the thread protocol specification. It is a market education group promoting the use of thread and connected products and ensures a great user experience through a rigorous and meaningful product certification program. That was a bit about the history of tread now. I'd like to give you some of the technical details of thread and short thread is an open IP paste secure Mesh networking protocol for iot devices. That's wild thread is a new Link Technology. It's designed utilize its existing Technologies, wherever possible at the

radio layer. It uses IEEE 82154. It's the same radio that Ziggy uses and has been using for the past 15 years and using an existing widely deployed radio technology allows thread products to achieve a fast time-to-market as well as leverage existing economies of scale to deliver low-cost Solutions. At the network layer thread uses existing iatf standards for transporting the Internet Protocol version 6 or IPv6 overrated 2.15 for radios a technology called 6lowpan. The front support for IP is a key differentiator.

Most existing low power Technologies. Do not support IP. And so why is IP so powerful love for nest and means that we could build a solutions that utilize number linked Technologies such as Wi-Fi cellular and thread and have all those devices communicating securely end-to-end with a single application layer and not have to build application protocol translators in between. And at the same time it means that we could have a single Network supporting multiple applications simultaneously know. I hope he makes it easy to deploy new applications because you don't have to

worry about application protocol translators in the middle. And that was a key reason for the success of the internet and its rapid growth and thread extends that benefit to low-power iot devices. So try to operate as a scalable mesh thread supports up to 32 routers that are responsible for forming packets throughout the network at the same time. Each water is capable of attaching 511 and devices as a result. I can easily scale up to hundreds of notes in a single Network. Spell threats self-select the set of routers has scales gracefully to different network

needs all devices initially attached as an end device. But when additional conductivity is needed a ride device May elected itself to promote itself to become a writer. What a router does determined that its conductivity is redundant or unnecessary. Let's read router can devote itself back to an end device. So threatening is resilient. Fred Rogers performance marine Lemak shortest path any to any routing protocol if you're familiar with routing protocols. It is in the class of proactive distance Vector routing similar to rip in short. It means that each router

maintains and advertises The Best Next Top towards every other router in the treadmill work this Dynamic routing protocol not only allows threat devices to efficiently for packets dropping network, but it also allows thread to dynamically react node failures and radio connectivity lost. The threats resilience that extends beyond the mesh when communicating with devices that are outside to read their work. Fred supports multiple border routers operating simultaneously providing multiple paths into and out of the network most other Technologies rely on a single Hub or

coordinator for external conductivity that represents a single point of failure. And that's largely because those protocols will require a stateful application in between maggots tickle application Gateway in between to connect Network to other networks. But with thread you truly have no single point of failure, whether that means you're communicating with other devices on the mesh Network or devices off of the mission work. I'll try to slow power compared to Wi-Fi the 802. 15. 4 radio itself consumes about one-tenth the power inactive receive mode. And when you

combine that with the fact that Fred can sleep and devices the vast majority of time means that thread devices can operate for years on very small batteries. That's right. It's also secure shred protects all data traffic at the lake Lair using aes-128 encryption and authentication with replay protection and unlike other existing Technologies. Security is mandatory in thread. There is no way or option for you to deploy threat that work with security disabled. What that also means his thread how to solve the security device

commissioning problem in a very user-friendly way VIA mobile device. They open a mobile app and discover its red border Riders on their network using mdns. They then establish a secure connection with that border router and then go over and with their mobile device and scan a QR code of the device that they want to join the painter short pairing code the mobile device 10 establishes a security TLS session to authenticate the joining device and securely provide the credentials. In fact, if you've used enough product today, you'll find this process is very similar to to what you've

experienced. It really is very simple and intuitive for the user and you'll get to see a demo of that in a bit later in the session. Sun summary threat supports all of the design requirements that we set out in the beginning. It supports IP for secure and in communication with out application gateways, it support hundreds of devices in a single that work. It has no single point of failure supports life time in years when operating a batteries and has mandatory security with a very user-friendly commissioning process. We started that effort in 2014 four years

later. We believe thread is still the only communication protocol that satisfies all of those requirements. The two years ago, he retired we launched the opensky project open thread is an open-source implementation of thread and it is the same implementation that we use in Nest products today. The goal of open thread was really to make the same technology that we use a nest products more broadly available to deliver developers, and that means you The open thread is an open community base project and it's hosted on GitHub. All development is done in the open

every commit go through a public floorquest where anyone can comment on and review can anybody can make their own contributions by submitting tissues or pull request themselves? Hope it's right is also licensed under bfd3. The Simpsons launched two years ago open thread has seen widespread adoption open threat has been ported to about 10 different attitude at 15.4 radios and you can find example drivers for those radios on GitHub. Furthermore many of the Silicon providers provide Direct commercial support of hope it's red running on their silicon and in their SDK, so if you're

already working with us favorite silicon vendor of yours, I encourage you to reach out to them regarding support for open threat. An open thread is also seeing strong adoption by iot platforms, of course Android things, but also particle run time and Zephyr. So in addition to the core thread implementation there a few other sub-projects, but I do want to mention the first is W pant n d a user space network interface driver for Linux. Remember that thread supports the same IP technology that drives every internet-connected device and with W

Penn's Sunday. You can present a threat that work as a standard network interface in Linux, which means you can use the same socket apis that you're used to using to communicate with red devices. Open turn also has a border router sub-project and it built on W Penn's Sunday to provide a quick and easy method for you to connect your open thread devices to ethernet or Wi-Fi networks. And you can do that using Raspberry Pi or beaglebone black and all of this source code is available on GitHub. Plus I mention open thread is shipping and S products today and what that means

for you is that you also get to take advantage of all of the hard work that we put into making open thread work really well in end consumer products. So let me tell you a little bit about how open thread really enables. That's products. The Nest detect is a wireless open close sensor for things like Windows and Doors. It's also a motion sensor and I communicate only the thread and doesn't was a sleepy and divorce allowing its radio and processor to sleep more than 99% of the time but when it does to text an event such an opening a door that can quickly wake up communicate

that event and set off the alarm by using thread Nest detect is able to operate for two years on a small cr123 battery. The Nest Yale lock cuz I connected deadbolt for your door like Nest detect. It relies only on thread to communicate and operates as a sleepy on device and by using thread not only that the last four years on double a batteries, but it can also respond to remote lock unlock commands within seconds. So it's very responsive. Add remote unlock is an excellent example of where you want secure and and Communications and threats a place that

by supporting IP. Open Nest guard is a thread border router that connects both the nest detect a nest Yale lock. It is a linux-based red border router supporting Wi-Fi and Cellular in addition to thread that uses. W pants Humpty to expose thread as a standard network interface to Linux Based Services and applications and it has a 12 hour battery backup with cellular to ensure that your friend Network stays connected. I can communicate alarms outside your home even when power is lost or Wi-Fi goes down. And then we

have enough connect that also serves as a thread border router connecting the nest detect and left you a lot like the nest guard. It is a battery packs Porter router allowing it to maintain thread productivity even when power is lost or even when life is down. However, unlike the nest guard Nest connect is an artist's class device and only supports Wi-Fi and thread allowing us to really drive the cost of that device Stone. And with that I'll turn it over to buy. Thank you Jonathan. I've been at the nest for over 5 years and I've been able to 15 for radio on several Nest products to

for the rest of the session. We're going to talk about how to take open thread and other open source resources available to quickly build your iot device. With all these red being highly portable far from Valdosta and IPv6 pays this opens up a large number of options for us. So we have several system architectures operating system 2 Chainz and radios to pick from so we going to talk about each of these categories and figured out how to make the right decisions for your product and what the deciding factors are. So let's start with the system architecture. We

have three models to pick from the first one is called system-on-chip or the soc model here. We only have one processor and both the application and open thread run on the single chip. This model is typically picked for a device that has a simple function and more importantly for a device that runs on battery power an example of this device is at the nest detect which is the motion sensor for Jose and benzos and the role of this device on the trade network is a sleepy and device and it needs another fully power. Set router to act as a step and there were a lot of features added to

open thread and parameters provided to get this device to run on a single battery for over 2 years. So all of that is available and open chat for everyone to use as what Most radios typically come with the single thread chip, but some today also have an integrated thread and Billy Radio. So we have the option to use more than one interface for communication. The next model has called the NCP are the network core processor architecture hear. The radius is own ship and we have a separate hose processor. Now this gives us a lot more flexibility. We can choose a horse pasture. That's a lot

more capable and we get the processing power to run more complex applications. We can he even have a nice you I like a display touch screen display Weiss assistance, you can have a wife and radio to connect to the cloud and so on an example of this device is the nest guard which is the security Hub is has a keypad speaker. It has several radio sensors that has a Wi-Fi bially cellular radios in addition to the thread radio the role of this device is at Red router and it's meant to operate as an always-on fully powered device does NCP model. We

also have the option of having the host and the radio sleep independently. So when is always on both the host and the radio? But when this device lose external power it can run on battery backup for up to 12 hours. So at this time the whole census information of to the cloud and it immediately goes to sleep the video however continues to act as a threat powder and can wake up the host whenever needed another example of this model is the more power constraint Nest protect. This is our smoke detectors battery power. Then this case for the host and the radio are always asleep again whenever

an event happens when can always wake up the other The next model behalf is the mac and thigh architecture. But again, we have two different processors for the host and the radio but in this case the opens record runs on the house processor and stuff on the radio and this model is great for adding a 15-4 threat support to existing products. You can simply attach a 15-4 radio to an existing device an address support to it since this model is simple to use and it has a quick a system integration. It provides the fastest time to Market

and it also offers the lowest 15 for component cost. So depending on your application and your product. What do you pop open? Trains are what your UI looks like. What are the radios you have? You can fake from one of the three different architectures next week the operating system thread open Skype is Stockholm agnostic. So when we choose the operating system simply face it on the complexity of your product silver something really simple like actuator on a sensor we can go with the bare metal operating system for something a little more complex. We can go over the three of us and for

much more complex applications. We can go with Linux or a linux-based operating system like Android things the nest detect uses for your task force operating system and Elva Forest networking stop. The nest guard uses the next for its operating system on the host and free our thoughts for the operating system that runs on the radio to all these operating systems networking stock and opens when are all open source, so we can quickly start adding your application. Ford on top of this layer open thread is also to chain agnostic so would not only runs only several operating system,

but you can also compiled it using several well-known 2 Chainz. So we pick that basically based on whatever you're most comfortable with open side also provides an addict app for an abstraction layer to all of these are great for us to achieve very quick system integration. Next we pick the radio. There are several radios available today that can run open thread and we are not limited to this that it's too easy to Fort open drive to a new radio. If you want to use it to radio here has a different Power memory and cost associated with it and depending on the exact

features and memory each of these range anywhere from $0.80 to $2. Determine. These are kleinman's it's best to think of the network as a whole show. How many routers do you have on their Network? How many sleepy and devices? Do you have how many sleepy and devices need to be supported on East Route the what is the expected battery life of your sleepy and device? There is always a trade-off between how often does sleepy and device pools versus battery life. If you have to pull too often, then it's going to drain the battery quicker. Super sweet determine the state appellate and that on the

other side for the router determines how long each packet needs to be killed for the sleepy and device. And the application itself will determine how large the sockets are and how many such packets need to be cured for the sleepy and device now multiply this by the number of sleepy and devices this router needs to support. So that gives us the minimum requirement for this router so wisely nail down the network and memory requirement we can pick from one of these radios. So at this point we can get a couple of these development boards because be made decisions on the operating system 2

Chainz radio on system architecture and we can try out our sample app to open try provides a very simple to use command line interface we can do a lot of things to exercise various features of tread you can form a networks can join look at your table table entry to put your child table. Look at the signal strength is neighbor that you have you can think one device to another the network and so on and for a host and NCP base platform, you can do the same thing with our WFAN Sunday to There are also several kotla Tiffin try out the code lab can either be run on two physical

devices is development board or you can run it simply with open thread in simulation mode. So this point we can start building an iot product by adding application support. Now. Let's say you're building an app that has a light bulb controlled by a remote switch. You can start my building dust by writing device drivers for your product. The radio drivers themselves are provided by the radio on. Commander. So that's something we don't have to worry about and if your network only has device-to-device communication, we are good at this point. However, if you want to send the

lights State updated to a web app or your mobile phone, we have to add additional border router and Cloud support. And for the application itself, we can write our own or we can leverage one of several applications that were written specifically for connected devices. Since Fred is IPv6 pace. You're not limited to those that are a large number of options to choose from everything from application layer security Connection in communication apis software download apis and so on so we can take advantage of this layer and hookah bar application on top of

this. The next piece of the puzzle is addressing. So how does your switch know the address of the light is communicating to how does your light now the address of the cloud service that needs to send a Fred support standard IPv6 mechanisms for local and white area connectivity the all you're really doing is building a normal IP network. So everything from assigning discovering to addressing is exactly what we do for the traditional lighting at work. Furness products we have picked a sergeant naming and addressing

schemes the cloud connectivity model and application layer security. This layer is what we called with and the reason the open-source Deadfall open weave. We also have a cold last set up here at I owe that everyone can child to understand what Weaver's what it can do and how to use it. So now that we've essentially that's already device by adding application and addressing support. Our next task is to make the network strong and reliable and open transferwise a number of features and parameters that help us with this first opens. Right is extremely configurable. There is

pretty much everything that you want. You can change from timeouts do number of children that you want is for how long is the buffers and so on are you can turn on and off features very easily by putting in some Defiance in a configuration files to make the stock do exactly what you want open to it also has configured of a logging and this morning has been Speaker booster on time and that's the most important thing. So say you heard debugging a network issue network is working great for several days and occasionally, there's an error. It doesn't make sense to have verbose logging their

entire time. So what we could do is it runtime man that ever happens you can turn on extra login just during that era condition. Open it also has a great set of counters. We can see everything from the number of packets transmitted receive dropped in every layer from fight math to IP layers. We can look at the transmitter right tracking and so on to all of this helps us with getting a deep inside of the stack and we can be booked really easily with this. Open turkey and running simulation so we can emulate at open set device using a process process. So if you

want to test a certain scenario over a large number of devices we can do so using the open pet simulator. Next we have to run. This is a python based testing framework developed by our colleague Captain. It's very simple to use and you can see an example of it right here. So you can create a number of nodes wind what you can do with you can tell the script that I want you to have only these devices join me, and I want to have these devices are blocked from joining me. So with this we are able to create complex Network topologies so you can run a certain scenario over

multiple horse, or you can force the packet to take a certain route to the network. Next rehabitat apology monitor. This is something our team in Shanghai put together for i o it's actually live and running in or a Sandbox. And this is basically a live interactive Network map. It gives you the device that tells you what type of devices are used what radios are used and so on in this will soon be open source. That's why Open thread support standard Wireshark traffic captors so we can get one of these divorce just load the standard entropy image of the free version TPMS.

And that's it. We can start steps leaving immediately. So the other cool feature is that the radio can simply be in monitor mode, but it's just faster than acting as an external sniffer or a device as part of the network can be put in a promiscuous more. Where is the part of the network and still capturing packets? And this is a game great debugging tool. So if you're looking for a lost package, you can be pretty much have the sniffles running on all devices while it's on the network and look at that pick up later to determine whether the packet. So as you can see all of these tools

to make it really easy to divide and as a result of your able to create a really stable Network and higher quality products. So what next when we started using open 12 in our products and testing it more in real-world conditions, we discovered several use cases and we started adding features around each. One of them don't open thread is not only tried 1-1 compliant, but it has a lot of features that in some cases are crucial for the success of shipping products. There are several of its features and I've listed a bunch of my favorites here. So there is Channel

9 and monitor and channel manager to try to operate in 2.4 gigahertz the same frequency as Wi-Fi So to avoid interference, we monitor all threats channels we collected over days and we moved to a clean channel from time to time. So that's the chat Channel Monitor and channel manager another important feature jamming detection. So we're able to detect Mana network is being jammed and we can alert the application. Another interesting feature is the periodic parent search. So when we first started working on our Nest guard in the nest detect be made the network really really strong

between them. Self between a bunch of parameters and made the connection so strong that when we deployed them and we introduce a new router in the middle like the nest connect. The problem was this device is sleepy and it was trying so hard to maintain the connection with existing parent that it could not move to this better parent is potentially better parent. So we introduced this feature called. Apparent search for every so often the device will look for a better parent and move. However, we couldn't do this too often because every time we were doing this we were keeping the receiver on

for 8 seconds and that eats into the battery life so we can get some computations and came up with 10 hours as our numbers for every 10 hours are next to text will look for a better parent than even if the network topology changes it will form the right parent. And now we're on to another useless. So this device in the middle does new parents say get the software update it reboots. And at this time the nest detect immediately goes back to the less appealing fans and now it doesn't make sense for us to wait a whole 10 hours. So we detected an arm in an involuntary detach and we check again in 10

minutes to go back two are better than I did and all of these are practical use cases that every thought of how they will run into and next is already gone through the process and we've added several features that help everyone. Do in addition to those that are also really small but high impact implements that they've added to be talked about the Spanish which like to each parent remembers the information about a child and a certain time or what happens is when does child move to a different parent the old parent does not know that it's gone. So it continues to kill packets for this

child. So we had another feature to tell the old parent that the child has moved on requesting a tree removed it from its child paper and so on so to sum up there are a lot of useful tools and a great number of features that were added to open red on top of that one month. And I also want to point out that opens red was not designed Just For Men with Nest products in my our goal is to accelerate the development of connected devices everywhere. So we not only made it open sores, but we also

added several features that Nest doesn't even use like DHCP DNS and Co-op. And these are very useful for existing internet-based devices to adopt red. To please make use of these tried and tested that forms in the open-source platforms and choose and let's bring more of those connected devices online. So with that let's check out some demos. What we have here is several development boards all running open thread. Do we have an Android? Thanks board. Your this is the i m x 75 people V

board. This is acting at the host. It has an LCD screen and it has a speaker attached to it. There is also the Tile app stand aboard. This is acting as the entry fee for the Android thinks we have a couple of Nordic development boards here acting as a system one chip one. That's a switch and the other one is a light. We have a couple of Raspberry Pi your set up a chess board of realtors. Each of them using a different Radio One is using the t i radio another one uses using a Nordic download. We have a stylist Mighty Gekko efr32 development board. And I also I have an XP. Vote here

that I'm going to use as my sniffer. So before we get into the actual I want to show you some tools and resources and how to get to each of these stop signs. So I'm going to plug in the sniffer into my laptop. and first let go to our GitHub page. So this github.com open this is where we go. See if you have the code for open tread water at a w pan Sandy and Feist Manor the bicycle is the tool. I'm going to use to stop my sniff a capture. I think Maybe This Is It

All right. I may have to open a different little bored here. and Okay think that looks a bit better maybe. Anyway, so that's going in the background so that there that's the sniffer that's running the standard entropy image starting to capture packets that are flowing between these two devices. So I have a nest guard and the nest detect here so you can see there are data requests and IP packets to flowing back and forth and this is just standard Wireshark that you see here. So I'm going to log into this device and show you some things there. So I'm

logged into the device and I'm going to use a wmctrl which is the tool used by Dolly Parton. Is the command line interface so we can do WFAN CTL status to look at the status of the network. We can do a telephone CDL get and this friends all the parameters that we have associated with the network. And these are the counters that right that I was talking about. There's so many useful counters to track various things. He's a great debugging tools. and let's

so so what I'm doing here is just showing you the laws. Apparently I don't see any logs. how to type sorry they're so here. This is what the lungs look like and they're really great. So you can see these are just standard IP packets. You can see these IP packets. We can see date of fools received from this device to this device on Swan and I can also send a ping. From one device to another and that's just a standard IP ping. And if I go back to my Wireshark that it is, so if your family with this to you immediately recognize that these are just standard I

be things in standard. I be packets. The next thing I'm going to show you is open. So I doubt I owe this is the page that we recommend going to and here you have all the information that you need here. So you go to sleep and here is all the development boards that I have over there and you can click on any of them and that will take you to their GitHub page where the tell you how to build the samples how to know the code and run the example, we can see other operating base operating system. You have Android things and sleepy platforms

and the border of the support. There is a Raspberry Pi board about the support and I've used those exact example to Replicate to set up over there. So I'm going to show you how that works. So that border router. Is advertising an AP. So here so far as we can open up a web app. I'm connected to that AP and I'm directly typing in the IP address of the device and now I can directly start controlling the network from the back way so I can say for example, I can form the network from here. So going

and I can open up the check commissioning app. So this can be downloaded from Google Play and this will detective order router first. I think it's connected. There it sounded water out there now to add a device to the network. I'm simply going to scan its QR code. and when I do that the QR code contains information about the serial ID of the device and its pairing code and there but red device God added to the network. And I can do the same thing using this time for like programs in the Android thinks board. And there's a speaker attached to you might be able to hear

what it's doing as I'm typing so I can look at the network info crime Network info. Says device is offline I can scan. I find my network and I'm going to connect to it. end the device is attached. So there that was a simple app. That is also available on GitHub that you can try out. So now I'm going to show you the open weave Dental. So this is similar to the one that you have in the cold love. Is it just a result of the code lap and you're going to go over that? And what

we have here is a device country code as a switch and another device configured as a light and this pretty much is just turning on the light and there's a lot of mechanic that go into it. So the light turned on and the light turns off. So what does is doing is sending a weave packet which is encapsulated in an IP message going over to thread radio. And the other thing that also happens at this time is we have a cloud service running over there and every time I changed the state of the light that gets updated in the cloud and that happened because this information goes with

red to Arvada router and the Border. Torres connected to Wi-Fi AP and it's uploaded to the cloud. to that concludes our demos We'd love to hear from you. Please provide us some feedback at are you scheduled page? Thank you very much for coming. We really hope you enjoy this session. I encourage you to go over to our I OT sandbox, which is just next door. You can see more demo see more things happening meet the rest of the team and after tomorrow, you can check out more information at open threat.

IO get hot give hub.com open thread and go to Google Groups open tread - users and thank you again for joining us. Have a great rest of Google IO.

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