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Electronic design for Android Things System on Modules

Jinal Dalal
Product Lead at Google
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2018 Google I/O
May 9, 2018, Mountain View, USA
2018 Google I/O
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Electronic design for Android Things System on Modules
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About speaker

Jinal Dalal
Product Lead at Google

Jinal is a hardware lead on Android Things team, focusing on building hardware IoT and Home based products. Prior to Android Things, Jinal led development of Google's internal storage platform for all Google services like GMAIL, Youtube and Product Manager for Google Maps. Jinal has Masters from NC State in Computer Engineering

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About the talk

Android Things is based on a System on Module (SOM) concept, where developers can build their own custom electronics around them at low cost and then scale up to production quantities. Learn how to create your own SOM carrier boards, including creating the design from scratch, working with a fabrication company, assembly and testing, and taking it all the way to production.

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Good evening High. I am 100% electronic design for Android sync system songs modules on my name is Gino's. All I am a hardware engineer for Android things and I'm really excited to present you this particular talk specially because of Bill's hardware for Google for about 10 years and I built for Consumer and Enterprise. So everything that you see here are the things that I learned over the past 10 years and please don't repeat the same mistakes. All right, let's get started. So

before I get into the details of how to build Hardware Android thanks has system-on-module which is a core component of Android things which has CPU memory power. Angela has Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. This is the core component of Android things which allows you to take all the complexity out of your hair and put the rapper around it. So going into the details. This Ford is about 2 inches by 2 inches and it basically is something you can buy off the shelf today. So if you were to think of an idea that you want to build using this as the

core module you don't have to go out and design it and all the type of complexity around this has been taken away from it. As part of this particular talk the thing that we build internally to Google in a very simplified way is the is the base for this is the board that goes with the song and allows you to add more functionality to it. So imagine use cases like cameras routers and and it displays that would like to use the same as the core component is the baseboard that you end up designing for your solution. It has

in this particular case that I designed. It had a USB ports audio HDMI buttons led to this is something you can design. This does not require a whole team of Hardware Engineers to go out and design it for you. And I'm going to walk you through the steps of how do I actually do those things as part of this this. All right before jumping into the details of Hardware design again Android thing joins this group of Android platform, which are about 2 billion devices that existed as well as it takes advantage of the Android

framework. So it allows you to use what you already know, for example, even in cases of whether it's cars TVs watches and heroes as well as cell phones you already send my love a distance from the now you're using this to build iot devices around it. From the ideas perspective and from what this enables there are bunch of options to go out and design in terms of home. You can think about security system speakers routers doorbells for Enterprise point-of-sale interactive ads

vending machines and going to share some examples of that and for more off buildings and Enterprise buildings. It's cameras actually Exmark meters and for cars and sleep management. You could do think about smart parking his car audio system with the opportunities are endless. There will be about 20 billion devices by 2020. And so this really opens up that the whole opportunity. In terms of Hardware, how many of you here have actually designed Hardware open part of the design. So this is really

the if you're disappointed or Hardware is really not about is different or hard. It's more about how you actually go to the process where a builder so as much as house offer is very hard word is spelled differently, but if your focus should be really on making those small steps to get you to the to the right platform at a more solid Hardware. So is that the three things that happened in the past? I would say five years 17 over the range of a heart rate is built one. There are 3D printers if you think about a box or if a photo frame or anything that you would

like to design you can actually go print it out today this plus the iot platform that we are building who enables you to build a platform or product around it. Second leader is crowdsourcing entered is the cost of manufacturing these three things that allow you to experiment with the ideas without actually needing a big team to go out and do it. Okay. I'm going back to this example this along with the rapper two cats one person at Google to go out and build it. These are just too gentle examples of what you can do with it that existing solutions. For example, a vending machine that doesn't

have a display can start using display and phone for his check out this Android things back when we were able to you are able to actually experiment with her as well as the pill dispenser again allows you to manage the schedule for the bill at the photos as well as notifications and so on again making something that's been there for a while and making it smart. Indian turn us off before before we talk about the process again. This is the board that I was just showing you the red is the baseboard that I

design the green is the system of module that sits on the baseboard. As you can see, this is 414 XP device. So the song is actually XP device, but the but the baseboard is is flexible. It allows you to add any features that you would like to reuse for your ear for your product. All right. So process the first step for Hardware design is planning planning really means identifying the core components of features that you want and then sketching it out loud iron-on paper to figure out how it all

connects. Second is prototype prototype is about actually buying off the shelves hardware and implementing. It is an experiment is designed for my sauce by sampling design is making the UI from a hardware standpoint. You're really getting into the nitty-gritty of using the schematic tools to layout tools as well as a releasing the news for manufacturing and last is 45 each of these steps. I really need to be followed and a really critical for the success of their design and it needs to be repeated to ensure that you can keep building more volumes. So let's go into the

detail for plan planning from from the hardware standpoint is really one identifying the components the features that you want. So you want a USB support. You need to USB connector if you want or do you need to add audio connector if you want to use a a a a a display this again needs to go here. It's critical to actually sketch Your Design up before you start implementing it this is a critical step and you need to think about all the features as well as the rest of the things which is power and size. So this isn't a different dimension think about how hot it is the product is going

to get. Where is it going to be used? Is it going to need cables for a referral from your standpoint beyond that? I also think about the cost very early on so that you don't end up buying components that are expensive from the beginning. And then finally, how is it all power. Is it a battery power or AC? This also matters in the design. So that's the planning, please. Nexus prototype I want to emphasize the value of totaled right when you start thinking about your design and you think that you need to wait all the way

until you actually design everything in schematic and layout. It's already too late and you already spend thousands of dollars to get there. So before you do that, but try and see if you can buy components online. Put it on the breadboard connect two wires and get to the basic functionality in place again. I'm going to get your basic functionality in place as much as possible. So, you know exactly what you are using how you're using it how much power does a draw and even to the extent that how does it look if you can bring something or use the cardboard it's worth trying

it because by the time you get into the production, it's going to be too late. Design design is this is something very most of the software developers are going to be challenged in terms of how to actually start in Clay Matthews get the schematics fortunately again in the last few years. There are a lot of Open Source options that you can use to start sketching out. Your design is an open-source schematics and and layout tools that you can use today with no cost and try

simple board there a few other options as well as from El Tiempo queda an eagle and each one has its own pros and cons for example, depending on how many layers the borders or the cost that you are willing to pay for the store. Each one will be if it has its own trailers in my in my particular case we ended up using alteon mostly because it's what I knew and as well as what I was trying to build which was an 8 to 10. fair board All right, let's take a little bit deeper into what a schematic really is. So from the

schematic is a repository representation of your design every component that you can think about that's going to be on your board is nice to be on the schematic as you can see over onto the screen on the left side is the capacitors that's marked as C1 C2, which of the reference designators the one in the yellow are generally a 6 or connectors the components that attitude is discrete or connected components that is ground which is represented by the lines which represents the ground of the board. There is a power which

is the input to the it to your circuit and then all these traces that you see are all your connections their physical traces that going to be populated onto the board to make these connections. Next after you are finished your schematic. The next step is to start doing the layout layout is incense and it's 3D representation of what design is you start thinking about where the components go physically on the design how they are routed not going into too much detail,

but this is tied to physics. And so how you run your single landed in differential Paris, like cloths and signals are critical in the design and this is where you can leverage. I don't send her a hug from online schematic or Danish or work with somebody, you know, but this is this is where you need to spend some time thinking about how your board needs to look for. The key components needs to go. This is what the board's layout look like. And this is just one of the layers there were eight layers on this

board the traces of the lines that you see going from the from top to the bottom are essentially the physical traces that were being routed to a connector the yellow I would say if you care about how you're going to be back this board you need to ensure that these things are placed properly similarly some of the symbols represent the components needs to go. Once you're done with the layout the next step is to see what exactly it looks like and this is pretty cool in her where you can actually start

thinking about not only thinking about what you are trying to build it also feel and kind of see what it is. And this is very things get really exciting. You need to take the time to actually look at various components are in the tin in the spring break. For example are my buttons in the right place is Led accessible are the connectors accessible from for connecting. This is where you can physically checked every single thing to make sure that there that lined up properly for example of one of the issues that we found when we were designing with this board is the LED was

actually placed in the back and so it wasn't that visually possible to see the holidays from the from the front when they're blinking specially for error and this so it's important again to think about these as part of your design. After you're done with this. What happens next is a really taken over by the manufacturing company, but what you need to send them is the Gerber files now, if you don't know how far is a representation software text representation of each of these components

the size of the board the traces the holes that needs to go onto the board and is going to solve the connections. This is a file that you didn't send over today or Manufacturing Company who then ends up building it for you. It's important for them to not only check this for you. But this is also something that they will help you confirm that they received all the right information the critical step in this process, even though it might say the same simple it might in my case that wasn't there was an instance where they received the files, but they were corrupted and they

couldn't actually build the right board. So expensive an important step. Do you need to pay attention to in terms of manufacturing that are two options today, which is really great in terms of the cost and there are trade-offs for each one. What is local board is ready. If you have your Gerber files, you could release it to somebody locally either. It's us or somewhere else which generally cost hiring here a few examples of some things you can use or you can do it offshore their the trade-off is it's the cost is cheaper, but it also takes

much longer time for you to receive your bored. It's kind of security companies for manufacturing one. Test every board. It is important that you're building your bored for the first time do not make the assumption that it's the replica and it's just going to work. You have your test every single word that comes out of the line for the first time to visually inspect before you actually start powering it on. There was an instance where I had the capacitor reversed and as soon as I plug in the power actually blue and it was real fire. So

this is this is really got to pay attention to your design. It does matter how careful you are before you actually turn on the power and turn if possible don't wait until the board that ship to you go to the factory if you can see how well as soon as they come out and make sure that they they work and is intended there have been instances where by the time they reach after 10 to 15 days. You might find a bug and now it takes another another set of changes and time before you can get this error, correct. It software you can just do it in a few seconds

All right. Once you have your bored you received it your tests. Are you checked for key components over there been populated properly or not? The next step is to debug you if you have some basic skills, you can use a Multimeter to check your signals and see if they are wiggling. Are you can use a scope if you have one but really they could the key message here is a try and the bug as much as possible. I'll give you one example here that is not obvious to you. But on the on the left side or on the right side for you is the one that is Marcus Dee is a

diode and what do you realize as part of a manufacturing process is that the diode was actually the worst and electric service in SD card SD card wasn't detected again visually really hard to see but this ended up being a bug another design where the Hard wants to place reverse and ended up causing us a no detect for the SD card. Turmos I'm briefly go to church on thermals. But this is an important aspect aspect of this Hardware design as well. So You would assume that if the hardware works on your table is going to work on your desk is going to work everything else. That's not true. As soon as

you start bumping up the temperature on the hardware. You start seeing all kinds of issues from shut down to heating up some components and causing fire. It's important to think about the critical components in your design and make sure you need the guidelines and the operating Speck of those components. If you can detect in this particular case, I have a heat sing for the CPU and initially based on over experiments. We realize that he think may not be required after trying a few experiments on the desk as well as the Eternal

chamber. We realize that this was required to operate the CPU at a particular temperature range again a small thing in this design go to pay attention to it. Lastly Mechanicals design and finish the design for the next step is what the inclusion looks like with 3D printing you can sketch you can print something out and test it out critical here is to look for all the other instances where you going to interact with your design if there's a button make sure it's accessible and it's in the place where you

wanted to be if it is LEDs, they should be visually you should be visually able to see them from from what is expected out of it. Similarly for connectors. Make sure that are not blocked it's always worth experimenting and printing something out or use a cardboard to to make sure that the E components are in its place before you go to the next step. In terms of mechanical is there two options to action designed this design design it one is called Soft tooling and the other one is hard to link install Sterling. This is where you use

the cost is higher the turnaround time is getting shorter and it is really designed for limited use cases. So if you expected the lifetime of a product to be three years apart that ass off tonight last only a year or two is where you actually use the sheet metal and use a heart tuning solution to build your yours or your product. This is higher cost. There is a high and Ari associated with it as Lord. Can you turn around? Used mostly for high volume products and it's designed for the full life of the

product. This is what you buy when you buy consumer electronics. This is most of the most of the tooling is hard-boiled or experimental Hardware that you have internally or India at your desk for example might be all this off. Okay, finally qualified. I think after you're finished all the all the aspects of this design, you got to qualify your product from end to end in terms of software to bring the hardware up around all the all the software on top of it and make sure the design is solid and all the features are meeting your expectations and set

up a password criteria for them so that you know, what's going to happen if certain 7 features that turned on and off. This finishes the cycle from plan to qualify and in some ways you would think that you are done. Not yet. Take this process that I just showed and you need if you are trying to build a product that's going to be thousands of units. You need to move on to the next phase which is which is what I'm going to go through. So EVT is the engineering validation test all the whole

process that I should just showed you that needs to be repeated for EBT jungle. Avicii is about a TENS of units and the goal here to validate your schematics your layout Your Design the core features components on the board and ensuring that it all works. It is not presently designed to run all the software that is expected at the end product. The cost for EBT is high. So in some ways you would think that the cost of the product is going to be high, but that's not messing with you true.

There are few reasons why the cost for EBT is high? It's lower volume to it is manufactured in a very controlled way. So there's a high costs associated from an MRE stand for and then three the components that you buy are also going to be limited. And so that's going to keep your car cost High. Max's DVD DVD is the design validation process where you validate the design and also involve some of the software teams into your platform. You test out the software bugs and generally you find

the issues which are 10% of the total years. So the pay attention to those fixing those and then ensuring that you can. Ready to move on to the next stage in terms of the cost for a DVD platform is about a few percent lower than DVD because I'm driven by the cost of the board the components that you select as well as the the process that you're using. Finally. Is a production validation test this is generally in thousands of units and you need to ensure that the manufacturing line that you have

is set up to handle the volumes that you're projecting this validates that process is part of this this step. In terms of the issues that you find are the 1% imagine now you're building thousands of units. And so you going to catch those small bugs that happens in the in your Hardware, which if you would have wouldn't have found otherwise focus is really on ensuring that the process and the line is set up to go really high cost of the cost for PVD is generally less than half or even one third of what the

cost of CBD is this is really where the high volume kicks in along with that. The tooling is going to be hot. Is it going to be hot to link? So that means that you're going to stop using much more much better design solution for your product. Finally mass production mass production is where you are going to start selling your units to your end customers. This is going to be thousands of units and this is where you start. What's a qualifying your second sources where you start adding more new components to your designed to reduce cost

and the years are going to be critical. So pay attention to how your heart is performing in the factory, especially for those small percentage of failures that you are saying. This text is really where the real cost comes in. This is generally like I said the less than one-third of the cost of an EVP or even lower and you can for them push it by using Second Source optimizing your processes, even that kind of changing some of the design of in terms of the components that you are selected and reducing the cost or even removal.

Finally, you think you're done again, not yet. There's a bunch of tests that are required for you to meet before you can ship out to your customers and each country has its own set of compliance test Eminem C test which is the which is critical to the to the product and of course a software qualification, so, Let's try to wrap this up. In terms of you did the tanning you did the Fahrenheit. You did the design. And then you need to qualify. These four steps needs to be repeated in each of this EVT DVT pvt

and mass production phases. And each of the steps are designed to deal with your Hardware as I mentioned earlier. If you take the steps and follow it through most likely Your Design will not have the issues that would cost thousands of dollars. That's the end of this talk. I'm going to do a bunch of things around if you haven't checked out the Android things them or you can go check it out. There's cold labs. And they're also few other presentations from Android 16 that you can you can check it out.

And a scavenger hunt if you haven't tried this yet. You should try and you're going to get if you can end up getting a kid. And I would love to get your feedback. Thank you.

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