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Building healthy technology

Adam Alter
Professor at Stern School of Business
+ 2 speakers
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2018 Google I/O
May 10, 2018, Mountain View, USA
2018 Google I/O
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Building healthy technology
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About speakers

Adam Alter
Professor at Stern School of Business
Maggie Jackson
Journalist at IT
Glen Murphy
Team Lead at Google

Adam Alter is the New York Times bestselling author of two books and an Associate Professor of Marketing and Psychology at New York University’s Stern School of Business. Alter’s most recent book, IRRESISTIBLE, examines why fifty percent of the population is addicted to at least one tech-driven behavior, like checking email and social media, playing video games, and gambling.

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Maggie Jackson is an award-winning author and journalist known for her penetrating writings on social trends, particularly technology’s impact on humanity. Her acclaimed book Distracted sparked a global conversation on the steep costs to our tech-centric, attention-deficient modern lives. With a foreword by Bill McKibben, the book reveals the scientific discoveries that can help us rekindle our powers of focus in a world of overload.

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Glen leads the UX teams for Android, Chrome, and Chrome OS; during his twelve years at Google he has worked as a software engineer, designer, and manager. He holds a Master of Design from Swinburne University.

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About the talk

In this Keynote Session, journalist Maggie Jackson, a specialist in how technology impacts humanity, talks to Adam Alter, Professor of Psychology at NYU, about why enabling a healthy tech life balance is important, and what can be done when building apps and services to make healthier products.

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Good morning. And welcome to building healthy technology and inspiration session on digital well-being. I'm Maggie Jackson. I'm the author of distracted a book about the fragmentation of focus and the ways we can recapture our attention today. I'm a journalist my background and a former Boston Globe columnist. And adjoining me is on my left is Adam alter. He is a NYU professor in marketing and psychology and rice Wiley for the media and his written most recently a book called irresistible about behavioral

Addiction in our society and Tech influences as well on the stage is Glenn Murphy. He's the director of ux chrome and he has been a creative force behind many Android products from Android auto on TV and behind a creative force in the digital well-being front of which you've heard quite a bit this week. So we'll talk about that. And I'd also like to thank Helen Hunt and then Nancy Baker for putting this together. So well then just for a minute. Let's start by

stepping back in history stepping back in time. The year is 1905 and picture Freud. Yes Freud standing on the Piazza Colonna in Rome on a warm September evening. He's watching a lantern slide show and it's a medley of short films and still photographs projected on the roofs of the houses in The Piazza. And as he writes later every time he tries to turn away a certain tension in the crowd keeps him riveted this great thinker far from home was entranced by the media the precursors of the media that envelop us today. He was conflicted and so are we fast forward to

our century and we're wrestling still with the promise and the drawbacks of Technology So today, we're going to talk a little bit about some of the challenges some of the ways in which we can harness the benefits and also begin to take more responsibility. All of us is Makers developers citizens and parents for what we're creating. Supposed to start of course. It's really important to understand the landscape understand what we're experiencing. So Adam, maybe we'll start with you to talk a little bit about the history of technology

and for Millennia people have been associating to new technologies with something fearful something challenging ever since played complain that you know, the written word would under mine are memories that were so important in oral culture. So how serious are the problems of our time I should be paying attention very scary because we haven't yet tested them out. We don't know if they're there to help us will hurt us or it's in neutral. And so anytime something new comes along as

an instinctive panic in some sense and that's why we are here again, and we've had that all through time in the twentieth century was TV and pinball machines and video games and also, Leather things and one of the questions people ask me all the time. I think white validly is is is this different we talkin about something different now in the last 10 to 15 years or is this just the latest model anak that we're all dealing with? I think there are some things that make this different I think so she escaped we talkin about experiences with billions of us enjoy or sometimes don't enjoy

and hours and hours and hours of the day. So the average American spends the average American adult spend four hours every day glue to a phone screen. So that's that's taking up a huge amount of the Viking died. So we should understand that I didn't quite well another thing that's different. I think is that I think about these past Technologies. We left most of them at home. So you can if you watched a lot of TV that was that was bound to a particular place, but now we wear out devices and so if you ask people if you ask again adults in developed world, how much time do you spend with

your friend 75% of adults will say that 24 hours a day that can reach that finds without having Which is not surprising but again, it suggests that something of a different about what we're experiencing now. It's not the pinball machine at the arcade. It's the phone that's actually a pot. When was the pot of you two extension of you? I think there are a number of features that make this different Wilson much more sophisticated in developing Technologies than we ever were we understand human psychology better as a psychologist consulted on the number of these projects. I know how much we

know how much we have to stand about what drives humans so I think there are some features that make this a bit different from what we've experienced in the past this in our lives total its total as well as the rapid change. I think that's a really important point. So I'm glad you have to keep your finger on the pulse and tell us a little bit about the research that Princeton has gone into the announcements this week, and I'm really into digital well-being. Helpless

in in their devices or empowered are both really exciting time for us to drive missing out with Ashley protect the title of the research that we had we had done and it was really interesting. We saw how people engaged in the things that we see which is to the once your head is down in the phone. That's what it's a very easy to stay. There there many things many exciting things in there to keep you in that but I think the other part that we saw that was really interesting was just how

social factors became a large part of this. I'm like TV or even desktop Computing which would be solitary things in our phone isn't inherently social object. And so one of those key things that we saw was that even if there was nothing for you to do on your phone, you still kept it nearby because they were other people who were Trying to reach you. And so we all became part of this big mess of humans contacting each other and I think that was something we had underestimated and all of this the role of each other in this area. So

joke that people should who are buying them. Maybe you haven't heard a radio shack ways to buy phones at RadioShack that people send it guy at the store should take you in the back and give you a counseling just like the minister might when you get married, here's what you need to know. So I think you know, that's really important in what about the emotional factors related to these feedback. Loops. Can you just elaborate a little bit about because I know it's really complex and we are right in the middle of it.

And if it reminds me also have books, you know, when you're reading a book the content is where your attention line, but there is The technology around it that affects you it's a lot less static than people think so what what are we not aware of in terms of our emotional responses. And were you surprised at the at the end of the Myriad responses if people had its really hot to draw a broad generalizations, but the the feedback thing I think is really interesting. Adam talks a lot about this actually in your book about how

men still useful to us, you know, they replaced Maps they replaced lights, they replaced writing letters replaced all these things and and you you do those actions and they you feel good. Central utility in your life. But then it said it very easy for those interactions to then bleed into other behaviors that may be less useful. Going to keep going because there is a feedback loop of like I was just one more thing. And so that's why we think about how a lot of that is very visible to the user and I think you've talked

elsewhere about how sometimes our own using technology can be very invisible to us. And so I key things sauces how we can provide a wellness two people know, I don't think it's a total number of hours thing. I was that's a good indicator. It's like how you felt about that time and I think often we find when we when we show people how much they were actually engaging often surprised and I think that's a really interesting component back to the same one again, and then I'll start I'll go through five or six of them and go back and then it is something you get into a sort of Lowell sense

of calm when you do that and that's I think a really big part of driving you to keep engaging over and over. Yeah, I think of Backstage we were talking about the automaticity of the human being as being such a crucial factor and everything. We do is underlays expertise. We have to do things without really thinking about them on the other hand. We have to be aware this you don't we evolved to be as reflective as we did to be automatic and that's really important. So we're kind of learning as we go and we have me is conflicted senses. And I think we don't have the option to get it wrong.

Honestly. I think we need to have technology and Humanity come together in better ways to to make us more compassionate better Discerning thinkers. So let's turn to The crucial First Steps again Glenn, then you can take it off by talking about the Android announcement and I thought it was interesting that some keywords that you had mentioned in our preliminary talks were control and where has he mentioned awareness, but how are some of the wine down and shush going to give people more control and and you have a sense that

how effective will this be or is it a? Announce that we not the other day, where are ain't around that when I can control giving people visibility into the what what they're actually doing. So what's happening and then giving them the tools to be able to change that behavior if they so choose and I think it's really been interesting to us as we could approach to space and thinking about the right ways to handle the responsibilities that we had in some ways. We have been thinking about where should that

regulation like I should it be technologically regulated and we should have came down too many of these things. With self-regulation. I think in many ways that feeling of control is really important to people and so we haven't provided that in the platform historically little bits here and there but you want to take that feather to give people that feeling of awareness and control so that as people are having these feelings about using their phones. They have the ability to change how they using it and to question about like with all of these I think I think this is an ongoing

thing. I think we were talking backstage about how many of the things that we all use in our life like to do list and other things often are effective for some amount of time and then we kind of adapt and then we should find other ways to do things. And so I expect this to be a long-running effort to us as we learn it might be that we can count to two different cultures that have different attitudes towards the phone and how we deal with that is really interesting even going back to the priest. We found that there were many places where the attitude to dealing with a ringing

phone was very different in some places. You always have to answer it regardless of what you were doing and how does it was okay to let it ring out and so that's not a responsibility of respecting the cultural norms and helping people think about those cultural norms. It said where we're at. Faceted scientists use to ask me when I was her studying attention. But trick question of what kind of attention do you mean because you know, it's a messy big thing but I think of it I think of it now as arrows in the ones quiver you can use Focus you can use awareness you can use executive

attention, but their tools just as perhaps these tools and I think that your announcements are a very very big deal. I do have to say that you or the overarching societal has been towards seamlessness thing you must engage or or or it's beneficial to engage to break that a tall is really momentous. And I think that that's a huge step forward as a very critical person about technology. I think I was on that. I think I think it is really something that's interesting for everyone here who

is a developer to think about is that we have been focused on immediacy and seamlessness for a long time. Like we clearly know that that's a key aspect to infect empowering people, but Thinking about that in the come in a social context in a creating something that isn't immediate for you as a sender also create something on the other side for the receiver. And so as we've developed all of these things that are very immediate there's another side of the equation that we going to think about going to

be this 105 not the backlash but that the other side of that that the quicker the transfer becomes in One Direction the clicker do you expect to get the reply and it's it's a really interesting idea. I don't say this is general idea of the role of friction looseness and the absence of pain points. We talked about this all the time in business professor in a business school and one of the managers in businesses make everything as simple as possible the one of the best ways to spend your money is to remove pain points or fiction points and that makes total sense

because that's the best way to ensure not just engagement for 5. Sometimes weeks use even decades and I think we've now push that to a point where this was starting to get the initial backlash and that's that's a it's a it's right that these studies introduced tools allow people to do manage that little bit valuable. It's really important to think about the idea of disconnection, which might be a change in the tempo of the Rhythm that allows you to gain

friction. But to think about that in a way that's not just in an on-and-off way. So in other words, maybe we can open up the space these questions. So we're not just thinking about the little paws points as being away from technology but importing that discussion into the very digital space and and I think about that currently in relation to the idea of Technology because I mean, I'm sorry, I just consider one of the unintended consequences of having answers at your fingertips all the time. This instant and Eddie would actually came in and the

17th 89 A century. I mean this is just eat open rolling along for hundreds of years efficiency. Is it but now there studies that are showing a little bit of hints here and there about what it means to have that instant and Andy all the time princess after briefly searching online. People are seen to be less willing to solve to tackle a complex problem later after briefly searching online. They become a little bit more confident overconfident. I mean about what they know, they don't really know what they know and don't know and I think he's a really

important hints because and why does this matter, you know, I think it matters because there is that side ourselves that's automatic the quick mind, you know thrives in the routine maintenance and answers does really well in the familiar, but then we if we exist on a steady diet of the neat and the package than a downloadable in the Ends Tonight. Time for beginning to possibly forget to to tap into the other side of ourselves the reflective the questioning the skeptical the cold so cold slow mind. And in fact, there is a really exciting

new explosion of research into various forms of uncertainty as actually connected to good thinking for instance on this really does I think connect to technology and well-being but ambivalence in CEOs in a crisis is shown to induce them to do deeper research to look at multiple perspectives to include more voices and then to take Bolder action. Wow, and then confusion in students again people of always thought the easy lesson what's good, you know easy to digest is better for learning but it's shown in complex situations

that confusion late leads to deeper processing in students. So this mr. Factors flying against a lot of what our society values and I think that why not develop a digital world where the human is more inspired to say. Oh, I don't know or you know to pause and then tap Jack into that kind of just Sterling Sales that they have and I'll just leave this point with one piece of tape one other piece of research, which is that when people in the United States are surveyed and asked what's positive about technology 60% say speed instant access to information convenience,

but just 10% say a positive about technology is it that it promotes knowledge understanding and curiosity. So that's a really big disconnect and if we could Propel her other side of ourselves into that space with developers help. I think that would be really powerful. It has everything to do with all the you know, the hardship that sedra. So when I was growing up, I probably knew a hundred phone numbers of my heart and that that was that seems straightforward and I think all kids at that time did that you did

and I knew your friends, you know your family members phone numbers you need some other ones and what I did was it meant that certain memory faculties were always being used and that would being trying without your even realizing it and there's a lot of research now extending what you're suggesting into the concept is Hot Chip inoculation and it's the idea that if you if you use your mind in certain ways, if you think about things in certain ways in small doses, you become much better prepared to deal with major tackles major problems major creativity hurdles times when the way you've been

thinking about things in a traditional sense. I'm not going to work. How do you get around that turns out having those hundred numbers in your head? I need a memory that also applies to how we use out minds and all the ways and so when everything is absolutely seamless and we don't have to memorize we don't have to try to think about what we're going to do next because we have a device that's going to deliver entertainment in the next 3 seconds. If that's what we want. I think those faculties wither away a little bit and so it's it's important to have occasions when we do use them in in a

sense just that are kept alive. It's like a muscle that's so you want to make sure that washes and so straightforward and seamless that were always out automatic cells and never Al reflect themselves. It reminds me a lot of discussions about discipline leads to development later in people's lives. But I think I can take away from me is thinking about how you know technology in many ways can be used to I think the idea is and in many ways is true. It helps us become more active in other areas as we make some things easier that allows us to devote time and attention to the size

of meta and I think the danger is that way we don't Elevate ourselves in that way and we can end up becoming purely passive acid for the entire and we can end up becoming and that their times for that in people's lives, like I was in the hospital for a week once in a very positive acid for the entire and we can end up becoming and that their times for that in people's lives, like I was in the hospital for a week once in a very positive acid for the entire and we can

end up becoming And that their signs for that in people's lives. Like I was in the hospital for a week once and is rape acetic acid for the entire. Yeah. How to get a grip on this landscape we're also I'm talking about well being which is a very also messy Hill Define topic, but now we've talked about control or talk about awareness were talking about hardship and uncertainty. I mean these sorts of plug these motifs are Notions plug into psychological ideas about well-being,

you know, Mastery control accomplishment as well as social relationships and health. Those are really important components May, what would you Think digital well-being in a what would it look like if the United Nations in five years was for this is the kingdom of Bhutan, you know came out with the new CD for digital digital. Well dwb. What do you think? It should look like Glenn? They may not be a global view. They may not be like you and I think that the thing that we grapple with is

level. Is there a shed like is it even at the friends level is it at the family level? Is it different with a different social context? We talked about use of technology and I can meet near the exact same usage can mean different things to different people that can lead to for the different a different sense of satisfaction. I think the key metrics about like why the people feel that they use technology was overall beneficial to them whether they derived value from it and I think it's you know, there's a lot of debate about

what that value should be and I think we all in preserving values up on the world as we think through these things and I think it is in some some people that value is you produced something positive. It's you develop social relations. How does the Valley can just be pure entertainment and I think that's okay. But as long as you pull in an intentional about it and you feel that you're in control of it, I think that's what well-being looks like brushing. What it what does it look like? It's generally resists

subjectivity. You want to test, you know, you can get people to test or 12 items. You wanted them you out of the store and you can say your well-being level is in an average exactly how I feel about their relationship to technology and they're only using very different metrics is Glen said so some it's about social relationships and facilitating that are not for me is a big pot. I live As I mentioned you do a long way from a big part of my family and so technology has allowed me to connect with them in a way that is very very enriching.

So that's the music heat factor for other people. That might be a factor or how do you live near the people that really matter to you or it's more important to you to create or 220 dermatitis or whatever. It may be right? I think there is no one definition and I think it'll be very hard to find just one definition. But I think that's the best thing we can all do is have a list of questions to ask ourselves and it has two that I think will illuminite for each of us individually with a week got a high or low level of digital will be an option for me. It's digital well-being comes from

augmenting Al real non digital experiences. That's much of it to me. So I like social connection. I get more of that social connection men better social connection with people I couldn't have it with using digital tools. I want to know where I am. I can do it better with a map on that device holder that I think is is a really big part of it, right? It used to be that you turn to someone on the street and say where I am. I am very directionally challenged. Sometimes I need a nap challenge. So I turned to human beings and they look at me is on crazy. Where's your phone? They

really look at the end. They don't know where they are. If no idea where they are. So they're really good. There's so many trade-offs. It'll keep us guessing for a long long time while I think that I had an interesting situation with a friend that I'm still trying to figure out where I sent him an article but instead of answering that he had gotten it and it was it was something very close to my heart and article I'd written about tolerance in today's culture but he waited and waited and waited and he was he was naturally going to read it and then get back to me

but I felt like wow can't you just say you got it. So it was it was really I just throw that out there than no answers, but I think that he don't acknowledge mint. Communications maybe. This will keep us all it should keep us on our toes and better and better way. I think that exact case was something that we saw a surprising going back to the discussion of Technology being a social tool. I think one of the aspects of it that we found really surprising was expectations of how we use it with each other. I haven't really been sent

I think with telephones we kind of created a culture like don't call after this time cuz they're probably asleep. It's going to rain in the house. I feel that. And we saw this that we saw many of those situations where someone would send a message and they would not get a reply and they didn't know what that meant. They didn't know if the other person was hurt or hated them. We saw someone who it took her three hours to get back to her friends. Some amount of time because she was busy and when they finally got in contact they were

the friend was very upset. That is Taken 3 hours to get back to someone and I feel like that is a sign that we haven't developed quite the shared understanding of what I used to be. So communication Technologies really means I feel that because we haven't set that we often pressure ourselves into being polite about it and really interesting for us. So I think that's something that we going to spend a lot of time thinking about and how we can help through technology nudge things in the right

direction 7 letters you want to go to certain number to email some people get hundreds a day. And so we we've tried to apply to Grandma that we used to determine how to deal socially with letters, which is you always reply. It's the polite thing to do. The email or the text and that doesn't work. If you get a certain number you guys are invited and I was having this discussion with my wife and I don't respond to one of them. I make an active decision not to reply that seems really rude but also I didn't invite conversation with everyone who's emailing. So I just never know where to

draw the line. It's really tricky. There is a set of rules you could throw up that would allow you to do with that especially for the different types of people that work emails buses emails from your parents different expectations, but you'll have it may be the same sir generations of different expectations. Certainly. Maybe we have to welcome that type of uncertainty will keep working at it because it took a thousand years for the book to be hammered out as a text us a technology. We know today in Shakespeare's time. There were a hundred and fifty different

versions of Twelfth Night and you could buy, you know, all sorts of different. Lines in London's book store. So in our remaining minutes, let's try to look ahead and perhaps we've guessed a little bit about perhaps what digital well-being might be but what's exciting what's coming up in the pipeline either as a sort of throwing our minds forward to the future in terms of technological well-being on digital well-being or what's really exciting now for you Adam. I'm just I'm excited that there's a conversation now at this level the fact that I was invited to

speak here is is very exciting for me because I've been thinking about these issues for a while and I used to spend the first 10 minutes of any conversation already talked convincing people that this was something we should even be discussing and we don't have to do that anymore. I think that's a really good first if that when you look people in the eye, you know, we all recognize that this is something we should be focusing on and that goes all the way up to a big company like Google and all the way down to individual people that you meet on the street. So, I think that's very

exciting. Ocean is where we go from here. And I think we're really at the beginning and I wish they would that a scientific research out there that suggested this is what the damage will be. This is what we need to change. If we do this is what'll happen in this is how we deal with it and it turns out I'm at a very exciting point because I'm doing some of this research but it's I think it's some of the earliest a huge amount out there now. Mountain and we will learn a lot along the way but not much is being done is a huge amount of low-hanging fruit. And that's what I'll be doing with

the next few years is trying to work out. What should we do really concerned about what we just talkin. Because there is some degree of panic and and then how do we how do we do with it? How do we fix it? Not just as individual consumers who are managing our own use or at kids use but also how to companies like Google introduced you new options new technologies, and obviously that's already starting in a hurry up. I think encouraging why I think But I'm so excited about is. I and I think

many people here like the reason why we work in this space is that we want to build experiences the people love I think delivering something to someone and seeing the Joy on their face. I think that's a deeply motivating factor for me and I'm sure many of you and I feel like part of this discussion is an understanding that We don't quite know yet what it means for people that love software. I think it historically soda macia's death very costly in terms of of people spending more time using the

thing that I've built clearly that must mean that they loved it and I feel like this whole Space is about understanding that that's not necessarily true answer. What I'm really excited about is finding more and more of the evidence that you talked about more of those tools and means so that we can all go and build more lovable software technology for nearly twenty years. Now as a humanist, you know to see the maturation of discussion and the unease I think that's really important to I

would say that. Just to throw out. I think that it's a little bit different but it's part of well-being this issue of Tolerance and I have seen some very Early evidence that in the space of the digital world more can be done. Then one would think too kind of push back on the hatred that's out there online. There is a professor at NYU actually PhD student who's done some amazing work in in in the space of helping people speak up and on Twitter, he's found that when there's a a hater

someone who's really espousing horrific things online and then a person from there in Brook. So if there's a you know a white male, Espousing hatred and a white male whose influential on has followers on Twitter makes one comment about a man think again or these people are human. What are you doing? One? Comment lowers automatically the amount of hatred from that person for 2 months and that's really am remarkable thing. So it speaks to a lot of research right now is exciting research on Prejudice on and offline on combating Prejudice that shows that little points of speaking up important

technology. They could help us learn that or help us speak up or understand when we're needed to say something in the realm I think is really important another study out of Europe show that if people are given a kind of Adventure game in perspective taking a day in the life of Roma a person is aroma and end. Pain in the kinds of troubles that they go through very short game has extraordinary affects its lowers their likelihood to vote for far-right party. It lowers their prejudice against

the Roma it also for up to a year lowers their prejudice against other minorities are other, you know, people like a lot of negative sentiment about like Refugee. So I think these Ripple effects are really important to tap into the verse in the virtual world. What is Ripple effects are there and it's really important. So I think we covered a lot of ground but I hope we raised them good question something to take away to think about to chew over and I'll just say to wrap up that we've certainly come a long way from the days of

lanterns slideshows and the telegraph is the state-of-the-art communications tool and yet we're still Wrestling with attentions and Promises of Technology all of what we're facing demands creative Spirits open minds and a lot of questioning and questioning is the opposite of complacency and unease is really a central route to progress in a society. So I think we have reason to be optimistic that with your help we can create a more healthy digital world. Thank you very

much.

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