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An Insight, An Idea with Sundar Pichai | DAVOS 2020

Sundar Pichai
Chief Executive Officer at Google
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World Economic Forum 2020
January 22, 2020, Davos, Switzerland
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An Insight, An Idea with Sundar Pichai | DAVOS 2020
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About speakers

Sundar Pichai
Chief Executive Officer at Google
Klaus Schwab
Founder and Executive Chairman at World Economic Forum

As Google’s chief executive officer, Sundar Pichai is responsible for Google’s product development and technology strategy, as well as the company's day-to-day-operations. Sundar joined Google in 2004 and helped lead the development of Google Toolbar and Google Chrome, key consumer products which are now used by over a billion people. In 2014 he took over product, engineering, and research efforts for all of Google’s products and platforms. This includes Search, Maps, Communications, Google Play, Commerce,

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Professor Klaus Schwab was born in Ravensburg, Germany in 1938. He is Founder and Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum, the International Organization for Public-Private Cooperation.He founded the Forum in 1971, the same year in which he published Moderne Unternehmensführung im Maschinenbau (Modern Enterprise Management in Mechanical Engineering). In that book, he argued that the management of a modern enterprise must serve not only shareholders but all stakeholders (die Interessenten), to achieve long-term growth and prosperity. Schwab has championed the multistakeholder concept since the Forum’s inception, and it has become the world’s foremost platform for public and private cooperation. Under his leadership, the Forum has been a driver for reconciliation efforts in different parts of the world, acting as a catalyst of numerous collaborations and international initiatives. (See the history page for more information).

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About the talk

A dialogue with Alphabet chief executive Sundar Pichai on quantum computing, artificial intelligence and the future of technology governance.

Speakers: Sundar Pichai, Klaus Schwab

The World Economic Forum is the International Organization for Public-Private Cooperation. The Forum engages the foremost political, business, cultural and other leaders of society to shape global, regional and industry agendas. We believe that progress happens by bringing together people from all walks of life who have the drive and the influence to make positive change.

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The biggest risk with a I may be failing to work on it and make more progress with it because it can impact billions of people work to Sundar pichai. Some of you will remember the discussion we had last year. And in the meantime, you're have moved to even up not only beings to see your Google but also being CEO of alphabet. So thank you for joining your Game Exchange offer discounts of ideas and opinions be here a lot. Sometimes of concerns about Technologies. What makes you actually Oak dimmest Bethesda Fallout from the shop, Thank you for having me here. It's a pleasure to

be back. What what makes me a technology Optimist. I think it's more how I got introduced to technology growing up. I think I had to wait for a long time. I would hear about things but I had to literally wait before I got my hands on either a telephone or a television and each thing when it came into our household, you know, if I discreetly remember how it changed our lives, you know, television allowed me access to world news football and Cricket with compassionate about I always had the first time experience of how gaining access to technology changes people's

lives. Later on, I was inspired by the one laptop per child project the school to give hundred dollar laptops to every child be quiet then get there. But I think it was a very inspiring goal and made a lot of progress in the industry and later. We were able to you know, make progress with Android each year. We bring hundreds of millions of people and they get access to Computing for the first time. We do this with low cost affordable Chromebook and seeing the difference. It makes in people's lives. I think I think it gives me great. Hope of the path of Hydra and more

recently died. Just just in the last month alone in a we have seen how a I can clearly help doctors better detect breast cancer with more accuracy. We just recently launched better rainfall prediction old timey. I can play a role in climate change 70 series examples first time, you know, I'm right about you know, the risks with technology. But the biggest risk with a I may be failing to work on it and make more progress with it because it can impact the lives of people. But then soon. You were if I if I like what

what has happened in technology over the last I would even say so two years. So Ross one big guy Blake School in was actually when I think we haven't really understood the implications of brakes. And now your company Google is a game. That's the fourth one of another Revolution which may have even more consequences positive or negative one. It's actually is the is seeing what you were just announced in Quantum Computing to break through and I have to say

to go to understand. I just know he could have a tremendous implications. Can you explain what we can expect from Quantum Computing and you are now Cielito you you have made to be like so extraordinarily important milestone in the last day of your Chief something. What's what's known in the field this Quantum Supremacy it is when you can take quantum computers and they can do something which classical computers cannot and you know, I like the way you chiropractor did SAS inspiring a milestone us to deep blue Mentor alphago

playing with lace it all to me in a nature at a fundamental level Works in a Quantum way. You're not a subatomic level things can exist in many different states at the same time. Classical computers working ones and zeros so we know that's an imperfect way to simulate nature nature Works differently. So what's exciting about Quantum Computing and why we are so excited about the possibilities is it allow us to understand the world in a deeper way we can simulate nature better. So that means simulating molecular structures. So maybe we can

discover better drugs understanding climate in a deeper way so that we can predict weather patterns and Tackle climate change. We can design better batteries nitrogen fixation, which is the process by which we make the woods fertilizes accounts for 2% of carbon emissions in the process hasn't changed in a long time cuz it's very complicated quantum computers one day allows us the hope that we can make the process more efficient. So it's very profound. We've all been dealing in technology with the end of Moore's Law really nice to pass for the year. But it's leveled off

when I look at the future and say how do we drive improvements Quantum would be one of the tools in Your Arsenal by which we can keep something like Moore's law mean to evolve. So the potential is huge and you know, we love challenges in a fight for 10 year time frame Quantum Computing will break encryption as we know it today, but you know, we can we can work around it. We need to do Quantum encryption Savannah challenges as always with any evolving technology, but I think the combination of a I am Quantum will help us tackle some of the biggest problems we see why don't you wear

and also to a certain extent genetics. I mean, I think your Quantum Computing and biology will one of the biggest butt in the world have a great potential positive or negative. The positive one that's your saying rightly. Is it to simulate molecules protein folding except at very very complex today? We cannot do it with classical computers soap with quantum computers we can but we have to be clear right about you know, all these powerful Technologies and this is why you know, I think we need to Be deliberate and

regulate Technologies like a guy and that's a society needs to eat engagement internet Detroit and Financial Times to be chocolate just before see a new meeting you stated and I quote Google Solstice music of nice things you need for a principal and regulated approach for applying artificial intelligence. What what what does it really mean? You know, I've said this before I de-ice one of the most profound things we are working on Humanity humanity is more profound than fire or electricity or any of the other bigger things we worked on is tremendous

positive sides to it, but denied as real negative consequences, you know, when you think about Technologies like facial recognition, it can be used to benefit in be used to find missing people, but it can be used for mass surveillance and as s Democratic countries with a shared set of values we need to win a build on those values and make sure when we approach AI we're doing it in a way that serve society and that means making sure a guy doesn't have bias. B building tested for safety. We make sure that that is human agency that it's

ultimately accountable to people In about 18 months ago, we published a set of principles under which we develop a is Google but it's been very encouraging to see the European commission has identified a i n sustainability as seen on top priorities and it's in the US without a set of principles last week and be the oecd rg20 they're talking about this which I think is very very encouraging and I think we need a common framework by which we approach a I are you are you satisfied research Frameworks? You said we should have been developed until now. I'm in your referral to

see a way CD frame Rock G20 framework. It's an early start up. But you know, I'm very encouraged that they are they have a lot of commonality and that's because they have rooted in common human values setting it's a great start, but we need to get more specific and an evolved significantly. I think the European commission is working on in a white paper around a i I think that's an important first step and we all need to engage as a company vehicle minute engaging in the process, but it's going to need everyone from around the world is no different from climate, you know, you can

get safety by just having one country or a set of countries working on Athena. You need a global framework to arrive at a safer world order return. Uu emphasize ago. And now I'm just a question is how much is actually Chyna engaged in through those efforts and don't you see the danger of Elsa tutu. So cool son dumb. That's the end we end up with two different Fabrics one, which has more that coming out to phasing and one which is the weather inside suicidi concept. You know, I think that is that is concerned that we could you know

bifurcate here, but I think it's important not to do so, I'm optimistic because just like inclimate. I think there's more alignment, you know, we have things like the Paris agreement the world comes together because everyone shares the climate in which the Earth you know how it affects the time. So I think that's true for a I sit down the line. I think I'll beat they'll be a common gravitational pull regardless of who you are to try and converge. Otherwise, you won't be able to achieve peace and prosperity. So I think I'll be a little bit gravitational pull know we need it archery is

a Fool with It Center for supposed to Industrial Revolution is trying to do two things to parties together. So now I am I change from moments to subject and when you look at the gdpr California date Privacy Act regulator start to take meaningful action to protect consumer privacy and the best I mean second issue C. Is it going on to conserve antitrust concerns Google buying up all startups read shopping Z. Let's say I am beyond swamped companies like Google trick pay. I think it was called additional dividend

annual. Can you show us part of Google and I have here to a guy come back privacy and antitrust. It's a great question is being a great great. Template I think it gives a standardized privacy framework, you know, I'm often when we are in other countries and when we are thinking about privacy regulation in a weak point to gdpr as a template, I'm glad you looked up the lead on it. And I think that gives a good framework for all of us to work on for us in the Privacy. So the heart of what we do, you know uses come to Google at very important moments asked questions we deal with

people sensitive information in Gmail Google photos and so on and so we have to earn that trust and you know today we do it by giving them control and transparency and choice around it and Overtime I think they I actually allows us to do this better. If we can do more for our users most of the day that today we deal with is to help users with their information needs and we can do that the Blessed data over time and it's counterintuitive. But last year, for example, if you use Google's keyboard, we actually now learn what to suggest that we don't send the raw data back on the

computer models and the data stays on the phones over time. I think we can do more things on device. We can you say hi to Ashley preserve privacy as we improve user experiences. And I do think it should be it's important that product need to work for everyone. It's a foundational principle. So today if you take a product like YouTube We allow users to pay for it and get it in an ad free bases. Are you have an ad-supported product? It's what allows us to take information and provide many services to billions of people around the world and you know privacy cannot be a luxury good we need to

make sure we develop services in a way that works for everyone but puts them first and you know, it's privacy enhancing and that's the journey we are all on but ultimately it's up to use this to choose. On your second question. I didn't without scale rightfully come scrutiny. You're right. We bought startups, but he knows a company re-invest every single year in hundreds of startups to our Venture arms be support entrepreneurs in incubators around the world in a through our grow with Google program. We are trying to digitally skill millions of people in

Europe alone. We have skilled over 5 million Europeans. So spit scale comes to chance to work on things take the long-term view on important Technologies like a i and Quantum Computing and so it gives us a chance to do that. But ultimately, you know, we have to do it all in the way that works for society. That's the real task and Society has to judge better word for you doing it's beneficial and you know, we want to engage constructively in the process and and and and and you know, I'm not right to do that, but we aren't doing we are in building up scales for scale say

We're trying to do important things for our users. I'm sure even if you don't have a microphone just speak loud. I'm sure some I feel for you up if you don't mind any anybody and we we stick to suppression of privacy or antitrust, please set alarm. Highest milligram of my name is Somerset, and from the global Shapers Community from India taken to see as myself. I wanted to ask you if India is it right now and it's a huge market for you. Your program on the next billion users is aimed at India. India is right in the middle of a data protection bill, which has seen a lot of changes over the

last year. It was first seen as very restrictive to Global multinationals like Google and now they're big tech companies now that it is being debated in the other the government has eased some of those regular regulations at either of these points. Google has not actively libido fault that they have said that we will comply with what the government says. What is your view on it? Because you're one of the few CEOs unlike I think many of the counter Paso TX a balanced view saying that there are risks for their also benefits people generally come out. It's usually come out on either end of the

spectrum. What would you like to see come out of the data protection Bill where the next billion users in India called the could benefit but Google could also sort of Vision Quest movie if you would just sign from your point of view and ideal I think the protection Bill how would it look like? That's a great question. We on the world economic Forum. We bring people together. That's what the internet is all about. You know the value of Internet comes in connecting the world and to do that. You need ya free open

internet to work. At the same time and you know, I see it's not just an Indian supposed to show up mentioned. You know, it's it's a it's a big big Topic in Europe and all other countries around the world politicians rightfully take me out. They are charged with protecting their citizens and and as part of that, you know, datos alternity is an important topic as well, but it is inherently a balanced right and I think you need to I think countries need to focus on the highest risk areas and maybe add Productions around it, but you won't know, you know, how preserve a common internet

even in India. For example, if you take a product like YouTube Many players in India more than 50% of their views come from outside of India. The internet is essentially an export product, you know, you can build a service regardless of variable that you can reach people around the world. That's what's great about the digital economy. It's I create new opportunities. And so that's the balance countries have to strike but I think you know, you know, I think that I could regulations tpr's about framework as we think about how you can protect privacy for a for a 4-year uses for

your citizens doesn't always mean data has to be siloed in a particular way and I think I think we need to Waldo's framework carefully. Let me see. Hello, my name is Quan from elderly. I actually I started from Harvard Innovation lab, so we did a lot of explainable AI so and I'm big fan of glucose technology specialty my I want to know in terms of transparency and accountability for what do Google thing. And what's Google's playing. Thank you. Such a great question,

you know, one of her AI principal sister day is ultimately accountable to humans and and to do that while explainable it is a big part of it and you can imagine a self-driving car making a decision and not being able to explain humans can't always explain how we make our decisions with think we can and we say some things but you know, that's not how it really happened. So I think it's worth remembering that but be our building it's one of her most activities of research. For example, the counter AI bias, you know last time we published research super example, if you have an image

recognition algorithm credits and says, these are doctors we can now say what are the variables you're using the product that these images are doctors. It may say white quotes that make sense, but sometimes tomorrow cancel email cuz it is seen only pictures of male doctors and then you know, it's not working well. That's an example of explainability which we do and you know, we are working hard to drive that but it is an area of research, but I think it's an important principle to do that before we use AI in high-risk applications and it's exciting as well actually gives us a chance to

do some things that human to actually buy a semi reinforcer biased to understand that counted it and do it in a better way. So we need to invest to get there. Let me take one also. Hello, I'm told you they were and salsa from the global Shapers community and I wanted to know your thoughts about data privacy and health-related data. What do you think is the direction that Google will lead to the Health Data. Another good thing about the healthcare sector. He knows the better already

strong regulations in place in as we think about regulating aoi I think it's important to leverage regulations by they'd cyst on Healthcare has good privacy protecting regulations in place. Has Google received a huge opportunity in healthcare? But the network on health care when you work with hospitals the day that belongs to hospitals like and that's how we approach it very can be encrypted data and the hospitals would have the key for it. But look at the potential here and they look at an area like Radiology people. They know they're often times cancer gets missed and and the

difference in outcomes is profound. When you take an idiot, like lung cancer at least show the pathology results to experts they often if you show it to 10 x + 5 people agree One Way, five people agree the other way we know we can use AI to make it better. And so I think it's important we do that but I think these are areas unless you have to do it with privacy in mine. I'm encouraged the Dallas strong privacy protection regulation already in place, which gives us a framework to do with well, but I think healthcare off first the biggest potential I think over the next 5 to 10 years. The

really improve outcomes and so we're committed to doing that Superwoman is working to get service to Japanese government to address this issue to find the right balance. Privacy and access to sedate off now. If I look at apple and a particular so your transition Form application form from Google to alphabet you are involved in so many different areas. I mean, why more sidewalk and someone that's one how do you see the future of the company? Is it a child?

Sucks up every single. How do you say Google in 5 years from now? Aqua Vino we will do well on leave others to go along with us. That's how Google works today through search we help users reach information. They want including businesses and businesses grow along with search in the u.s. Alone last year in a we created 335 billion dollars of Economic Opportunity and that's true in every country around the world. Bethink with Elsa but there's a real chance to take a long-term View and and work on technology. We can

fix can improve people's lives but we won't do it alone in many of the other bats, which we are working on very can we take outside Investments. These companies are independent so you can imagine we'll do it and Partnerships with the other companies and and and also that gives us the flexibility to have different structures for different areas in the baby need them to what's Healthcare endp partner with other companies today. We partner with the leading Healthcare company as we work on these efforts. So this is we understand for alphabet to do well being inherently

need to do it in a way that works with other companies create the ecosystem around it. This is my last year just to our Venture on me and mustard and over hundred companies. We are just invested in these companies and they going to be independent companies. We want them to try and succeed and so in about the baby think about it, but I think it gives us a real chance to take a long-term view beat self-driving cars or a i and approach it with a long-term view in my soul. One last question. You you are the knowledge

of 110cc your for whatever you say. That was the most valuable companies, but most powerful companies. You said you are an optimist when you wake up at night. What and you cannot sleep anymore? What river is she what's the time? You're pretty insightful when you wake up at night. You know what? I I think technology as a chance to transform, you know Society for the bird, but we need to learn to harness it to work for society's good. But I do worry that we turn our back on technology and I worried that you

know, when people do that they get left behind to answer to me. How do you do it in an inclusive a minute just coming here. I was in bed sham and I went to the mall and geek, you know, it's a it's a startup incubator in more than baked in the community. You see people who may not have gone to school but when you give them access to digital scales, if so hungry for it people want to learn technology and be a part of it. That's the desire you see around the world when we traveled when I go to Emerging Markets, you know, it's a big source of opportunity. And so I think it's our

duty and responsibility to drive to scroll through an inclusive a and so that keeps me up at night if your translated Icing supposed to have had this is the first Industrial Revolution be created new identities like foxes socialism and capitalism today at 6. The dividing line in society is between Southwind Place technology. And so we checked technology. So why do you have also and an important role last prophet or missionary to explain is that also has new technologies at the end up in the future for humankind, you know very much

sir search of the heart works. It does not matter whether you're a student in Africa or your professor at Stanford in a search works the same way as long as you have access to a computer and connectivity, you know, that's an equalizing force and you know, then that's how we need to approach approach technology. Time and I think it's the real opportunity we have so you don't have to if I'd take you over your feet don't have to sell only a product or manage. I don't know how many people now but you have to be at to explain

continuously. So I brought you are doing is good. Now how much time do you devote to Stuart portion of your responsibilities? You know I take with naturally with scale comes to responsibility. I do see us a big role for us to engage externally in a partner with other institutions paid government Regulators nonprofits educational institutions reform the world economic forum and and an engagement. I think a big part of what we do know. Thank you very much do to have responded to so

sometimes critical questions, and then we hope we said we can continue this discussion. Is it coming in and we wish you all the best in the meantime, and we all will use Google substantial in Jamaica. Thank you. Thank you. Thank you.

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