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AI-Generated Synthetic Media, aka Deepfakes and its impact By Ashish Jaiman, Director, Microsoft

Ashish Jaiman
Director at Microsoft Corporation
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About speaker

Ashish Jaiman
Director at Microsoft Corporation

Ashish Jaiman is the Director of Technology and Operations in the Customer Security and Trust organization at Microsoft, focusing on the Defending Democracy Program. Jaiman’s mission is to help customers to improve their security posture and defend against cyber-attacks. He is currently working on disinformation defense and deepfakes intervention strategy and its impact on society and democracy.

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Deepfakes are synthetic media (fake) generated using the Artificial Intelligence technique of deep (deep) learning. Advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) and cloud computing have made rapid and easy development in the sophistication of audio, video, and image manipulation techniques. The intent is to deceive the viewer or reader into believing that the media's subject is truthful. Sometimes this is harmless, as in entertainment and movies; in other cases, the intent is more insidious: as another tool for cybercriminals to defraud, damage reputation, limit the agency of an individual, and a way for nation-states to influence elections and disrupt democracy.Deepfake can affect the voters and the candidate. Deepfake of a political candidate can sabotage their image and reputation and alter the course of an election. Using deepfakes and synthetic media may have a profound impact on the polls' outcome. Deepfake can be used to dismiss an unpleasant truth by a political leader as fake news.

01:02 Mapping the problem of disinformation

03:48 Types of deepfakes

09:11 Deepfakes harm and threat modeling

14:57 Outreach

16:46 Disrupting elections

19:03 Effective responses

23:20 Deepfake ethics

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Am I such a mushy German? I am as a security interest organization to help was mission is to advance democracy and Democratic principles helped Denver cyber-security resiliency as well as mitigate disruptions to the process of democracy. We have three pillars of focus areas are campaign security election integrity and disinformation defense. I'm here to talk about deepfakes and I thought you know, I hate 13 days to the election. What's a better topic been talking about the impact of defects and democracy? I mean actually focusing on this issue area

for lost 12 + months because we believe that affects ability of an effective tool to spread this information and describe democracies. So I want to start very very brief very brief overview of information disorder. And as you can see the three categories of off of what we call, you know, this information either have misinformation this information in Maryland probation up in the whole idea is this information and information hasn't bad inventor malicious intent behind a disinformation can very well be used as a misinformation by

an assumed user. So, you know, it's a very thin line where you know, I on any advertently say something bad about you know, what is happening around the politics are a but, you know, there could be an intent behind that buy an Nvidia cycle inflammation disorder. The letter T Define what defects is the defects is any media, you know you have pictures you have audio video and now even text which is manipulated by AI up to the beat in the buffet comes from Deep learning and the fake is manipulation of media.

And again that the idea had us to create a hyper realistic digital falsification. You confuse voters to harass someone or to disrupt social Discord in your increase polarization, Angela. Angela defects. We believe is a bill become a very very effective tool to spread this information. I want to show you actually an example of defects which was actually created to raise awareness of defects before the UK election. And I am not sure if you can actually listen to the song but I put the the link then as well in the bar that it was a it is a pink tank in

UK call Future at Booksy and they created it just you know, the idea that he wants to raise awareness. But the video is the defect videos were both candidates Jeremy corbyn as well as the Boris Johnson endorsing each other and asking people to vote for their opening and this is again the idea is that it was for the two of us, but it can very well would have been used for nefarious Lee creating something that boys don't send me a said that may have your decrease your chance to get back into office as a prime minister. Will it

actually quickly talk about the types of defects that. We know as of today are you know, this this field is very new and in improving their lot of going on in this space. But right now what we see is face swapping which most of you may actually have seen on the on social media is where you know, one face of off a person is actually David on another face up and in the whole idea there is to make that person look like someone else up some of the use cases we have seen off office so I can be

fixes is mostly on Revenge pornography. The second thing is Lip lip sync where you know, why is used to render mouth movements and facial expressions to make the target say things in their own voice in their own voice in their own stone internality with the whole idea to confuse. Users on on what that person may say or talk about interesting field where the whole idea is you can manipulate the whole full body motions and actions based on someone else's actions

imogenation 100% synthetic in my generation meaning, you know, you don't even need a an existing purse when you can actually generate the whole face or whole object entity or even you know, human beings images of them. Obviously not the human means the images of them which accurately synthetic and you seen that use in a inauthentic profile pictures on social media. Voice learning which is again, you know taking someone's voice and glow net up and have them say things that they will never say

the last ones next Generation on the PBS station. We are talking with gp3 till you know, this is a technology which gas leaking generation detect text very very easily bad things are defects can be used for I do want to spend like couple of minutes to just talk about Hayden synthetic media is not bad right? There are so many positive music. Put them together in those six categories, but there could be more the best of used games that I have seen which is very close to my heart

as well as in accessibility accessibility. Essentially the whole idea is that defects or synthetic media can accelerate the accessibility. A people who may have limitations or or or or or maybe Macon condition one of the examples that they have seen as in a speech impediment. So, you know, if if there are people who are suffering from speech impediment their own synthetic voice in their own turn in their own ways. Can we use for them to actually say things that they want to say and then

running into impediment issues assistant negative navigation, which is another great example actually has a vision impairment synthetic voice can be generated to navigate to help them navigate to the surrounding wall. Essentially. The surrounding words can be synthetic regenerated is in form of a voice for them. So they can navigate that aren't an expression is another thing that I want to quickly focus on is, you know. Teachers to deliver their lectures and very creative way to engage a student and improve the

learning outcomes you seen videos actually in the classrooms for lost many many decades now, but you know bringing synthetic technology can can tremendously help teachers to improve learning outcomes for the students original amplification another creative use of a synthetic media, especially in Translation where you know, I'm I can speak English but you know, if you are on the other side, maybe that don't understand English, but do you know Japanese real time? You can hear my voice

in different language and that is that is That has huge potential Sonata Lane translation, but there is that I can have across the board of in retail and other other influencers can use it as well and quickly is is innovation Innovation or one of things. I want to talk about his privacy too right now. Everyone talks about privacy specially around the healthcare data because you have a great relationship. I'm in the light up assume. It's synthetic imagery of a particular disease can be created soda and you can

train the Algarve them on their synthetic image to predict rod and using radio stations that you can actually play synthetic data off of patient to do during which lessens a lot of privacy concerns. It is one example there many many more, but I want to jump into What nefarious actors can do with this technology and when we talked about how to fix we typically would put them into four categories. That's how I'm thinking is a Honda against individuals homes against the society comes again business against business

and harms against democracy individuals. I think I did allude to that is a very first use case of Malaysia synthetic media defects Machining in pornography. And in the problem there is that I can inflict emotional reputational and in some cases even violence against individuals and and especially especially what we see the day that the defect pornography is exclusively targeting women. In fact yesterday. There was a news broken by I think it's a sin city with They

broke the news that telegram WhatsApp like messaging app has a bar that can. Gather the pictures of from social media and creative nudes of them and a hundred thousands of women without actually deep news about created Dennis, especially against individuals targeting women of what we are being seen right now Society Society you can think about your defects can accelerate the decline of trash that we have on media right now. Video speed and scale defects can be used to spread misinformation.

Again, you know amplify social divisions by fake media assume or think about, you know, defect of a community leader talking you're saying things with a disparaging to another community in some countries have actually seen the violence against against a particular not be faced with this information can inside their defects in our to make it very very real businesses. We have seen impersonation of leaders and individuals to facilitate financial fraud that it was a case study

in Europe where the voice of a CEO was used to 22 blakley have an employee transfer in around $250,000 into the nefarious Acts 3 are seeing it inside word. We are more worried about Add effects can actually move markets as well. You know what Tsum a CEO of alphabet repudiated company daddy fake talking bad about the company of the product or whatever. I may actually manipulate the market that sells last but not least of this is where I want to focus is the impact of of defects and democracy the whole idea that is a doctor of

defects can order the Democratic discourse false information about a candidate two days before before elections, May ruin, not only their reputation but their campaign disrupt their campaign and even if it is a false information and they said they would all their energy to debunk that the heart may already be done because there's not enough time before the elections where they can be bunkin and change minds of everyone. So that is one big issue that may happen is a hypothetical situation right now, but Rodney happened other things which I actually we are also worried about

is is a deepfake off can manipulate voting before and then confused but also May cast a shadow in legitimacy even after the elections if if if if if there are defects off your random acts of of of of the ballot stuffing or whatever up Noggin hypothetical situation, but is very much possible using by malicious actors using defects lastly in an actual available going detailing on this site. I would actually not too far on on on top of the scenarios. I want to actually wanted this because this

is I feel it is very very important to do understand that this whole idea of trust and Truth Decay where no one dressed anyting can be accelerated by this this information using the effects of it can become a very very effective tool in the hands of autocratic government results. And you don't even in in in democracy is it can give rise to the authoritarian kind of leaders? You can trust. You can use the effects to justify operation. In fact, we actually especially in the human eyes context there could be some potential scenarios using something here

and there across the globe but this is something that we are really ready. But what about the defects actually have a potential to her democracies? Don't want to give you one example that shows a real example in India drive to the elections in 2019 early 2019 was used to amplify the reach of a politician again. It was a boy lip-syncing. But you know again there was like there are ethical issues in a hundred and we will not go there but this defects was used in

political scenarios in India. Almost a year back or Ardmore. Irving Mall that we have seen recently is the effects are used for public service announcement. In fact, I don't know if some of you came across this defect of Putin and and and and Kim Jong own talking about elections in in the US it was made for raising awareness of the issue and trying to bring people back to working. But again, you should go and watch this I am I put the link there is a very very real

defect. Actually you can meet up for naked eyes are very hard to get out of safe. It is really not very interesting. If you have you seen some of the use cases of defects in a positive a right now, but I can The nefarious acts of malicious use of defects is not too far. I've seen some examples of Stephanie lamp actually created the website where you had a head ideas do to provoke hot water were saying things that they haven't said yet and I don't want to go into details of the activism hair, but I'll encourage you to go and watch these these defects and they're very very hard on that.

Message that the technology is he? All right? Yes. It's it's not as easy. That I can create a very realistic and in 4 hours. Yes, I can play on my laptop. Definition of a machine. But you know, I have the ability to go in the clouds scale and create something very very quickly, but we'll reach that level of sophistication. I may require more work right I may have to do. But again, you're talking about sophisticated who has resources have the capability and may use it for doing Madea harm to

individuals businesses society as well as democracies. This is an example. Like I didn't want to go too far, but I want to bring it back here is you know, again defects again sabotaged an image of a politician it can confuse voters. It can also put a Shadow of Doubt on the on the results of the elections. This is something I want to focus a bit more evident in the whole idea. Is that just by the existence of defective word itself via seeing some of the people actually giving birth defects can give credibility

trying to conceal their Bad Axe and calling a defects essentially defects allow someone to dismiss a real bad act or speech as a fake of and Garlic Brothers never happen defects can also use is vsync fake news being recognized a lot but defects can create that factual relativism essentially give rise to what alternate facts right, you know, you can have a leader. Really in any defect doing something else confuse people. We don't know who is what is what is not right? And that is all idea of disinformation campaigns. What defects can excellent.

I know if I'm Immortal timer check my time. I have been so what can we do? Right? So the basic ideas for any countermeasure to this information to defects you have to think about two things effective response means two things one is in reduce exposure to Consumers about these bad thing and can we reduce believe rights of this is all you know, how do we defend the truth? How do we defend the truth managing our freedom of expression or do we have to have a very good balance? They're reducing exposure. So there are their countermeasures allegis remove the

content and we'll talk in detail. And what what kind of countermeasures we are thinking about what we have seen, but it can be done by removal of content differential promotion dissemination control. So, you know that you cannot forward more than five. That's kind of you controlling the dissemination of of of of information and then demonetizing and I most of these Bad Axe actually have a financial motive. So if you if you come up with the right kind of business models and deeper be incentivised people were creating bad information. You

may be able to control the exposure on the reducing believe there are some a lot of research going on is like a can you label a piece of contact you may also see it on on Facebook and and and and Twitter and other places, but now he's back home. Putting some labels now, there is a lot of research showing that hate does the labels work doesn't know it or does it actually amplify or or or or get this hold confirmation bias Echo chamber going on. Doing this right when they see any information they try to actually put additional contest to that information as well as find people to go to the

actual facts for factual information in the last but not least is civic education. I will go more in the next light up about this to countermeasure. So we talked about. Hey, you got a bunch of hypotheticals. But but you know, we are seeing something real head there as well. So what can we do to when we think about countermeasures we're thinking in terms of four four categories of media literacy, which I believe and be believed that is a most effective tool to come back this information

defects media literacy for consumers receive for journalists. And the next thing is platform policies platform policies absolutely can help if you have the right terms of use Cypresswood to eat misinformation disinformation and effects on the platforms would certainly help in that effective countermeasure that we were talking about a minute ago. They have to have meaningful regulations. You know, you just cannot ban this information or information or defects because you know again the whole idea is that you know,

authoritative parents may use a regulation to to Discount The Descent in in their country to suppress dissent. Do you have to have meaningful regulations? But before even even having meaningful negligence you have understand the problem and it is a societal problem is not a technology problem at the end of the day technology. Are there any regulation are the last but not least acknowledge acknowledge. Don't think about it all into categories detection authentication in Providence.

one second before I I I I think I'm I also want to focus on on on ethics of defects, you know, it's really easy to do to start talking about the negative use cases positive use cases countermeasures and whatnot without understanding the ethical implications end of the day the Technologies allowing you to impersonate someone allowing Technologies allowing such a bad actor to impersonate the ethics of Ethics around creation, but also around countermeasures right getting into this

realm of telling me my free expression. So we just have to think about that but combating be fixed. For Democratic organizations in politics stretching the truth over representing an alternative facts are known but you know using these bags get up at the theaters Mustang about ethical representation of it because you know how to influence an unassuming Hotel may not be ethical rights are undesirable truth can be dismissed as a fake news again. There has to be some ethical consideration. I feel like that is unethical but we have to

think about ethics around effects synthetic media as a app to to Heaven holistic approach to word countermeasures and and and the use cases With that said this is the end of my presentation. I think I erased it because I thought that the content will not be done in in 30 minutes, but I'm glad that I could do it and in 25 so that we have 5 minutes for questions if it is possible, thank you cousin Jason and timely topic and explain good job and all of us are going through some of these things. Do you need to see what's happening in

D & D A Digital Media Centre electric company with the F starting with the letter and other companies. From day one of them. Is that how can you trace Trace ability that you can use to how to pull up old definitions of a g7x actually goes back to detection detection of a synthetic media super hot. In fact, we learned from Facebook defect detection telling where the best of the only able to give 65% of precision on on and on a defect Light Unseen defect detection is hard. So before even be going to trace ability plus we have to identify

What needs to be done from a technical count to detection is a cat and mouse game because most of them are generated using AI noodle networks and the rain has began which is generative adversarial networks and with a simple idea that I have to beat the detectors if you come up with a good detective up at the Creator Malone from that in and make it fail. So so not so traceability. You're absolutely right is a big challenge but even bigger challenges for let me first detector detection is hard. It's a

cat-and-mouse game between all of us have to work together. In fact, what are the things that that I should have said is this is a very complex problem that requires a multi-stakeholder and multi-modal a countermeasure accounting techniques. Whether to bring about a solution, but your point is is very well taken traceability super super hard. But first see, how do I protect the other question? I want to come to the liking a slob never bet you purchase also, which is again a big problem that existing

rules and regulations around how how you liking it actually can be dragged or there are regulations on on what you can do with that are not the problem is specially in some of the state is not consistent across across the countries across the state of the problem is after death like in X-ray pictures of what happens when a synthetic voice on a synthetic image of a video of someone who has passed away and that electrical issues as well. Is that a question and a copyright policy in

an especially around public figures you also get the freedom of expression Narrative of its going to be counterproductive to the discussion.

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