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PGConf India 2020 - 25 Interesting Features of PostgreSQL 12 - Avinash Vallarapu & Jobin A - Percona

Avinash Vallarapu
Chief Executive Officer and Co-Founder at MigOps
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PGConf India, 2020
February 27, 2020, Bengaluru, India
PGConf India, 2020
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PGConf India 2020 - 25 Interesting Features of PostgreSQL 12 - Avinash Vallarapu & Jobin A - Percona
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Avinash Vallarapu
Chief Executive Officer and Co-Founder at MigOps
Jobin Augustine
Senior Support Engineer at Percona

Open Source database adoption has been increasing very rapidly in the technology world. Being an Open Source lover and a PostgreSQL expert, i have always tried educating customers on the possibilities with Community PostgreSQL which is Open Source, to save them from paying dollars on commercial or enterprise tools that are not even comparable with the performance of the Open Source tools. There is a huge and robust ecosystem around Community PostgreSQL for every enterprise need that is not known to most of the world.We then started MigOps. MigOps stands for Migrations to Open Source. The motto of this company is to help customers looking to migrate from Oracle, SQL Server, Sybase, DB2, etc. databases to PostgreSQL with zero possibilities of vendor lock-in.There exists some Enterprise companies who smartly shift customers to their proprietary and licensed software. My motto is to prove that MigOps can perform database migrations in the right way using the built-in features and robust Open Source alternatives without the need of any VENDOR LOCK-IN.

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17+ years of experience in Database and Datacenter operations.OpenSource / Free Software advocate, Contributor.Actively participating in development, Front face for community, replying in forums, writing blogs about Postgres.Presenter in meetups and Postgres Conferences.Excellent experience in Oracle, Postgres and MySQL administration with knowledge on other database systems like MongoDB, Firebird and SQLServerDeveloped award winning Tools and automations, Ranging from DevOps tools, Automation tools and complex Web browser add ons.Experience and Expertise in Administering Databases on consolidation and cloud environments like Oracle Grid, VMs, VPS, Amazon EC2, RDS, Azure etc.Several years of experience in designing large enterprise grade databases.Helped the organisations on Open Source adoption and migrations. and was a contributor to a MySQL fork (Drizzle).Years of experience in helping organization in acquiring talents, mentoring and training DBAs.

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About the talk

  • PostgreSQL continued to be the DBMS of the year for 2018. An interesting fact is that there is a new release every year. So we have another new release this year, PostgreSQL 12. It is planned to be released in the third quarter of the year 2019. There are a lot of improvements in partitioning, query planner, Indexing and some SQL features, etc. Among all of the interesting features for developers and admins, we shall be discussing 25 of them in 40 mins with some examples and benchmarks done on the PostgreSQL 12.

  • This talk is to introduce PostgreSQL 12 and its new features to audience. It is designed into several categories such as improvements in Partitioning, Indexing performance, Query Planner improvements, SQL improvements, Table access methods and other improvements. By the end of the talk, the audience should have a clear understanding of all the features and benchmarks.

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Okay, so quickly we will go to the university of the improvements are the features that you're going to talk about. So there's a lot of improvements in the party indexing and sometimes you might even be surprised to see that the database size when you're done with the posters 12 is smaller when compared to post 11 or previous versions, right? Okay. You would see some of the reasons for that and you'll see how some of the improvements have been happening on the stand by side or some changes, which are quite different from the previous versions of wedding. You might have

to change your HSA script. If you have done some things manually and some of the optimizer improvements, that really improved performance at the same time and also see some of the money trading options that are in the theaters that are enabled through some parameters as well as abuse and some of the security improvements. And authentication improvements server configuration changes and general performance and partitioning related General performance improvements and some of the new functionality client library and some of the features and also will

see some of those tools that I've got really minor changes. But this should be interesting to see a based on some of the benchmarks that you have done so quickly, jump to the partitioning area, right? And then I'll leave it to German for a few more things. So I mean, if you would be following the post office mailing lists and looking at the discussions around. You know, the improvements are or whatever features are being developed discussed, right? You could have survived that there have been several discussions on some of the synthetic benchmarks done and claims

that there are seventy six times of improvements for selecting 420 times for employment for updates, especially for the planning time, right? So, when, when you have a partition table with lips are thousands of partitions, right? This would be partition pruning in place which was not sufficient in the past, right? So eat the yolk. When you could just go ahead and hit the right partition that it could hit. And even at the planning phase, it will not really considered the metadata of all the partitions on the child partitions. It would simply go ahead and do you

know, Bi-Rite partition the picture. And so for example I will go ahead and look at that one of the men have done this, right? And what we're doing is in the year, 2001. Be considered a weekly partition, right? So jogging has a scraper tool, that's available SP department. Where it could go ahead and create a future partitions, right? So we are creating a 1000 weekly partitions through that script. So, we just cleared the partition table and we created 1000 partitions and we inserted some random data

account of stuff. From Scott orders, where all the time between 1st and 3rd. So when I run that, you see the difference in Fiji 11, the planning time is 29.740 milliseconds. Whereas the planning time in pg12 is 0.157, milliseconds. Once of course, the metadata is cast, my photo degrees in both, but when you have especially thousands of partitions, right? I mean, hospice, 12 is much more advanced. So it's, it's pretty much improved in terms of performance. And it's not just to let, even you go ahead and do for example, of

done an update. And if you explain analyze and look at the planning time, It's a lot of improvement, right? It's a lot of improvement in the planning time especially when you even talk about updates, not just select. So I have got a planning time of 267 milliseconds in PT 11, where is with bg-12? Give God, a 0.350 milliseconds planning time. So inserts to partition tables. Also have less locking. There are a lot of improvements to words inserts, deletes update selects, right? And it's consistently.

The performance would be consistent even with huge number of partitions. So talking about magic and there was an extra upend that used to happen with pg11 especially when you have got a single support as well. We just now not needed with bg-12 so that has been improved. So you're planning time, right? Even employed here in this section. And I even much open, right? So even in the past like they used to be an additional stage. And even when you have a single spot, right wearing, it needs to

go ahead and merge all the support. When you have too many politicians in place but it's just a single support. You don't need a Mojo pin happening. So it further reduces the planning time and even the execution time the total time which is planning time, plus execution time, And attached partitions is no more blocking. It does not lock your car is now, right? So earlier attached partitions, used to block but now it doesn't lock your queries and at the same time that I've been some, there's been some confusion around detach partition stuff, also not blocking but that's not right.

So, if you are running any queries on that table, would again not get into the blocking stage and people not basically finish. So you should stop all the activity on the table to Golden Runner detach. And so forth at the for that reason. There is no separate Syntax for confidentially on the attached, right? And the creation of new partition table, you could just go ahead and use like right and just say attached partition for values. And you also got some of the functions that were

the help. You understand? What is the topmost parent and the parent and the ancestors, right? So there are PG, partition root partition, and sisters. And there are some more functions that are available for you. To go ahead and a look at the partitioning better data or the partitioning route, I'm talking about employment with copy a. So even both loading to partition tables is Father a lot improved, right? So I mean, copies by floating, which is, of course, a single transaction, right? So the

algorithm behind that and the way does interact with the partition tables of 8 in insert data to partition tables. And even with PG, damn, now you could even when when your PC dumpy selected is used to them data with insert statement while restoring, you could also go ahead and say the number of rows that it can insert statement, right? You could specify that with PG dumping PGA store. Now, And talking about inserts again, it's less locking. All so simple.

I'm shows a pretty good Improvement in there at the same time, even in terms of the rest or you could always see great improvements when you are storing data or dumps to partition tables. So earlier video diversions, we had this issue, Aaron Weaver converting some of the large tables to partition tables, right? When we do that, if there are foreign key difference between the partition table and another table, right? The partition table full, of course, reference another table, but the foreign

table, the other table cannot actually referring to partition table. So now you could also reference a partition table so that works with you 12. And a partition boundaries, it cannot be able to create creation time. So earlier, it's right. For example, I Gordon say, like a create partition partition, you know, values from the values do something like a current date - you know, some number, right? So partition boundaries can now be defined as any expression. Show me talk about

a general Foreman symptoms. 25 important points, 13 word partition later. So if you have a big table. If you're planning to make it to post 12, the partitioning feature is the single biggest reason you should choose. Was this thing that this may end up? Like, it's all about performance Improvement? Changes in the internal algorithms or so. So, you know, the community and all improvements happening across the board, in terms of the algorithms are operating into posted as soon as

we landed. So it is fast and efficient and it is consistent across platforms. So if you're using your older drivers, there could be some minor change in the position. So please go to the documentation about the datatype change. How would you help put it? So, no need to want a big change. And this is something really going to help you. You know, the concept of toasting, the Big Data externally, just like it's a text or call but block as a separate storage. And every time

when you access those things for a career like post years of their son, Corey the Intel thing will be defrosted is uncompressed and sourcing. The inside. Baden post stole. The operation is change, supposed to searching all part of the column, only bad part, get the toasted. So most of your quarries. Sitting on the dorsal column is going to improve. How many of you do not know what is toast? Alright. Alright. Maybe you want to store the size? So you could

be going to give me the starting a big document for storing a file. It could be multiple employees and the 8th baby and it won't fit into that. So what does is between story texture and Ali If anything, more than 2, KB will be stored externally and her friends will be stored in there. August block and external storage will be compressed because it's a big data cost. Yeah. Yeah. So very mild Chicken store in place. For example, in the things we have the size position and its associated with that size and.

Yeah. After after what value, what size should really go to to toast, right? So you could have come in, the default is to record. Automatically does this posting? Yeah, it's a different location. if we are going on that column, if you're going on a gas and we just directions Dad blocked me to be first. Yeah, I don't have to worry about how it works internally. Just a second look. So it isn't a block need to be to not be decomposed. Decompressed like some expression in the first few characters you

searching for Siri. See this like like expressions of characters your searching for so far that they blocked me. Not be decompressed. Only a few blocks need to be covered too and some discovery. Yeah, so based on your Quarry was only up to that point. So if you have something for Jason and you're searching for the field at the beginning of the price of gas in Curtis and see the performance Improvement, Yeah, yeah, yeah. Aha BHA peel. And this is another big Improvement, just updated and then Jade has benefits. So if you have City

Curry's City expressions, and offering to that, the problem there is one. See materialized. You don't have an index. I need next one. Be used in the subsequent Curry's, but now in that City will be decomposed and it will be added as a part of the curry. And then that happens for integrity. so this is a great Improvement and for those who are using No notice by default. Olivia Steele city is especially also in such cases, when we are in the, in the planets in the execution plan.

If we saw that there are a lot of number of Loops, right? And in order to reduce a scan right, we would rather go out and create a city and plated Behavior by adding that with Matt last option, Otherwise, it'll be optimizing. And vacuum. So Stacy is going and we had a lot of challenges and communities. I don't think that with the extra closest to the back, so we can a table level, we can specify the vacuum to the vacuum that clean the index. Now, when, when there is a spot of the

table vacuum, This is very useful. When we are handing some vacuum freeze operation emergency, please of the operation. We can just say that, I don't clean the next, just clean the table and let's proceed will be faster. And the next option is Skip, lock the partitions, which are undergoing some transactions. We've escaped here. So we have all these new options for fine-tuning the vacuum. And this is a new feature, you know, this single 2016 specification

and one of the standards and know we have the standards. So the biggest big challenge faced by developers is that there is no standard for Jason access to my mongodb has their own way of accessing different database, has their own things and finally we have a standard sequel 2016 and And I'll I'll be giving some later to this later. And this is out of the big bro doing at that allowed using copy command. So now we have a decent condition long-pending demand from the community so you can filter the copy oppression.

I'm fixin a few minutes back. Robert house was mentioning about the importance of Jackson in the database and we had to renew the cluster dumb and restore the data. But now Behind the stool. Pigeon Jackson is included in two distributions. Texas. So if you're worried about data corruption, definitely do this. Yeah, that's what they start. And this is something new. I even answered a was working on a customer case later to this now has has the columns You can see a table and we

have a column seems so we can have a powerful example. I want to find out the age out of date of birth so that might trigger something like that. Know when they insert happens into table we can have a function which will execute at the same time and it is to extract. The daytime story. Do some activity, will have people who store updated the same team stand or something using triggers know, it is easy. So let me give you a small demo of that. Yeah. So I'm just able

able to store the candidate information of employment and the jobs that I'm going to get you some better experience and store it in a different field so that I can do some sorting operational. Something. Okay. So, the table is created. And this isn't a Time inserting into the table. And I'm probably just showing it in pretty print. His first job in 2001, And see the experiences calculator out of debt. So it's not just Jason, you can you can use it for calling any function in a custom function and table.

It's a lot of antique artwork will be simplified. I'm not select at the time of insert, insert or update. At the time of interview. It'll it'll update. Of course. Sorry. Yeah. Okay. And I know thing I want to show this also So, don't start, migrating from habitat areas, like my cycle or other systems. They have no collections. So, for example, if you want to see if I can hear you see in the table, I'm starting with a capital letter first. With a capital letters. But I can carry with a small letters. So if you can get custom collisions

interviews, this I see libraries. All those isolated parameters specified interpolation Soon, you'll get the same behavior as bicycle, other database. All right, so don't be modest and Medina Base improvements or changes, right? So you don't have recovery.com file anymore. When you go ahead and set up your application, right, when you go in until 11. Where you will set such parameters Lake primary call in for standby mode and all the other recovery-related settings. Now, you don't have to. You don't have to create that file anymore,

right? So you have several recovery-related Hospice Care. Count for the auto.com. So if you just called and say select name, setting where name like recovery, you see you know and write. So even primary voting for primaries last name like these were not part of the set to see all the recovery settings. Like you could just say select name and setting from PC settings where named like like every person Thailand to you see all the recovery is now the post test case.com

So when you create replication slots, right? When you go to create replications lot, especially when you're using logical application or even using it for the purpose of a, you know, starting the walls until they replied, right? So that's when you go ahead and create slots, right? That does not change none of their behavior changes. Is this the parameters that you can figure in the recovery.com file, write those parameters that are changed. Oh yeah yeah okay so when

you go to new Speedy bass back up and let's say use the flag - uppercase r e. Tree is used to create the recovery. Khan trial in the past. Now it creates a standby. Signal file instead and as the primary content for automatically to the auto.com 5. So if you go ahead and create your stand by using the GPS backup simply by doing a plain dumb and, you know, and then go ahead and specify - uppercase R, it creates a standby. Signal fine. And this is the file that actually tells whether it's a standby, right? And then, if you look at PG's in recovery, like that

used to be the function that used to run on the standby. If it's a true, it means it's a standby. Now you could also promote in order to promote a sandwich earlier, used to say PCT, elephantito directory promote on the standby, which isn't always using the pgcpl, but now you could just run it as a function of musically. I'm just running has a function, right? And then he's, he's in recovery, of course, all speakers. When you didn't promote, it just gets promoted. So we may not get into the server database server.

It even gets promoted. So now, they're preparing me to this remote underscore underscore, find that can be set as part of a postal scale. Khan fight. So, there are two signal, fire stick signal and standby. Signal is standby. It means the databases in the standby mode. And if week And of course takes up to the barometer like recovery Target timeline. Until what time you want to recover, the latest, or until a certain point in time you want to do a point in time recovery. Those can be configured but it's part of the coast is clear. Khan audio.com and

Orchestra, major tools, you may have to modify them so that they fit Depot skill to back up to see if you're looking for the cab, and for trying to back up in different ways, the store and check if you need to perform any modifications. And yeah. So, talking about psql improvements, you could use now, you know, the following formats even HTML format, you could use psql and just specify the former time. Do you want to display, right? And you can also get the output in the HTML format so all those formats are available but even latex and

much more advanced help options available with psql. Now with posters fulfill even at a completion of creative, will create trigger all those photos of work, right at the moment that they help you say. What help is available on BS. So if you're going to say to that, And if you're using any any kind of Linux terminal. So as you can see, you feeling. So it's not just a single command, you can get the Details. Yeah. Yeah. All right, so now even if you need to look at the list of partition tables available, you could use those help options / be uppercase p.

Okay, so so also at the same time, even if you would like to look at all the help options available just say /? So you see all the shop shirts, right? And earlier, last deal with not used to display a partition table, like with diapers partition table, write the list of table and talking about indexing improvements as I was talking about it earlier in the beginning. Now, if you'd go and dump your call. Did you actually see that the rate of his size could be

right? And that is big and at the same time the between Texas especially the multi-column in Texas or inorganic in Texas with duplicates. You see it really not storing the way it used to earlier. So now the space used by those in Texas is also deduce. Because it just need photos duplicates. It just uses the same point in multiple point is to the same duplicate records and that way you don't have to store it twice and even vacuum cleaner stopped in Texas with duplicate values. So everything is optimized

in the best way, in terms of indexing. So when you create an index, you see, an index are taking very less space at 12. And talking about the index. Now, you could go ahead and use a used to use something like a create index, concurrently and then renamed the index. But now you could even perform re-index concurrently or index the other table, sofa table, concurrently with BBs. Like me used to write a custom scripts tools to ask you this. Now, those projects are currently and rebuild index

rename the syndics approach. Right. So now even though just like between even just ended support include option, right? And you want to go from here. Yes, she won the Belgium versus Optimus now, the investigation takes the risk, and, and the valves are added later. So, give me a second, and I'll replay the legend is that specially when you have a standby, and there is heavy traffic. Yeah, coming to optimize our romance and more exciting formation. So that the much better things soon. The first column dependencies so

if I'm storing it table, That hasn't dependency of the state, okay? In the same table. If I'm starting a state ID or Social Security and stated, he has a relation between columns. Yeah. By independency, we have always depend also captured. Now that's some plan on attending plan about this in my session. And the gate is not always great. How about that? Internal monitoring improvements in duration statement but now we also have this a sample rate where you can go ahead and set a sample letter of 10%. So

10% of to equities can be captured so that way like it's not that the fast Aquarius are not getting captured but now they can be captured with a sample rate, right? so, we can talk about that often because Yes, more Motrin user-created and now we can see the progress. You could see the progress of an index and the security letter in Romans. Now we have the fruit plants certification verification to do the three levels of texts. And now we have option for multi-factor authentication, not just one method. We can have multiple methods. And addresses security

Bluemont letter to the specification of what we need to use the mean version. And Max washing we can specify washing to the main points. End of this a gift. Sapa of integration using Jordan posters which will allow us to have single sign-on. Yeah, so few more ideas of reference differences for today. Thank you, and taking any of the questions off line during lunch.

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