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PGConf India 2020 - Sharding in PostgreSQL - Sachin Kotwal - 2ndQuadrant

Sachin Kotwal
Consultant at Amazon Web Services
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PGConf India, 2020
February 28, 2020, Bengaluru, India
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About speaker

Sachin Kotwal
Consultant at Amazon Web Services

Currently, I am working at Amazon Web Services(AWS) Proserve India as a Consultant About my profile, I have around 8+ years of IT industry work experience mainly in PostgreSQL database testing, extension development, migration from different databases to PostgreSQL etc. Testing and analysis of the performance of the latest PostgreSQL releases. Software Proficiencies: Databases: PostgreSQL, MYSQL, Cloud Services: AWS RDS, AWS EC2, Microsoft Azure PostgreSQL database service, Google cloud database services, etc. DevOps Tools: Chef, Ansible etc. Databases Tools: - Database migration : ora2pg, Bucardo, slony, syncdb, dblink_plus - PostgreSQL extensions : Citusdb , plprofiler, pg_hint_plan, pg_dbms_stats, pg_trgm, pg_logical, postgres_fdw, dblink - Database Monitoring : Nagios, Icinga pgON, pg_Cluu, PGobserver, OpsDash, pgwatch2, pgcenter, pgbadger, - Database backups : pg_backrest, , pg_barman, pg_dump, pg_basebackup - Database maintenance : pg_repack, pg_pathman, pg_partman, pg_rewind, - Database Replication : repmgr, patroni - Connection Pooler : pgbouncer - Load balancer : haproxy Programming Languages: shell script, awk script, python script, ruby scripts, etc. Testing Tool : DBT-1, jdbcrunner, pgbench etc. Other Proficiencies: Certified Postgres Plus 9.0 Associate EnterpriseDB Software.

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About the talk

1. How to achieve Sharding in PostgreSQL

This section will give details of PostgreSQL Sharding prerequisite (required extensions and sample example).

Sharding with inheritance based partitioning : Demo example for Sharding with inheritance based partitioning.

Sharding with declarative partitioning : Demo example for Sharding with inheritance based partitioning.

Existing other PostgreSQL sharding solutions : Talk about existing sharding solutions.

2. How can we achieve auto Sharding

Explain how one can achieve auto Sharding using plpgsql based functions.

3. Benefits of Sharding in PostgreSQL

Talk about common benefits of sharding in PostgreSQL

4. Limitations of Sharding in PostgreSQL

Discuss about current limitations of Sharding in PostgreSQL.

5. Good use cases for Sharding

Discuss few use cases where sharding gives performance benefits

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Good morning. Have you been quite a few have been seeing me on the first day of the training, so I'm working with the second quarter and for the past two years being part of the support team doing few Professional Services engagements and lots and lots of paintings. One of the things that excite me, so I get out of those second quadrant raining a lot about starting before. Now, let's hear about the 13th and today we are talking about the charting we have Thought about starting to my last two days with a

difference. What is sharding guys? So that mean now hearing about sharding, the band know what comes to your mind whenever we talk about. Shouting know, somebody will start say, hey skillability, something that comes out of your minds. First statement to go ahead and give what are some of the ways ways to go ahead and Implement charging in your environment? Take a look at some of the mostly Depend and on performance optimization. How much are performance? Would you like to do to? Not every use case is

suitable for shortening. Why is another planet like this? Partition them and Route, your beer sucks, physical streaming applications, that will give you a lot of optimization and takes it out of Burden, off of the production instances. So in in why sharding and stuff, nobody will take you through a lot of people. Walk you through some of the nuances of how to go about doing the shouting exercise. If I can name a few real proxies one of the priests trade for the standard We have our own a

PDR tools, which we have been posting about Indy. Multimaster replication, would like to blondos Constable, not go into detail about DDR3, keep it as generic as possible, situation level starting know what kind of measures know you should be taking know by now that we're talking about the database Saturday or do. We go ahead and make sure they're going hand-in-hand and stuff. When we think about starting to people come to know that. Okay, what what are? What are the different ways to share my data

database for the data? You have at least two basic two ways to do a challenge at application and you can't answer the phone. So, The application Level Sheridan because that's the way to do it. But people think it's difficult because they have the right logic to make it happen and they also worried about. Okay, what if I need to be reminded my application in the future? Because you should look at the kind of application migrations on the changes into the application, that becomes hard. So that's the reason people, okay? I don't want to be worried about what is happening at the data. I will

just need to connect to the database and everything should be done. That's the reason when it comes to mention that we have multiple Solutions actually. So we are going to vote Associate in chatting in postgresql, is kind of like mind up. Then we're going to talking about inheritance best partitioning partitioning so we are going to talk about both approaches. I'm so people think of Autobot Autobot eating all the shading and some of the new skittles we're going to discuss So, what's up?

I'm about to So like we talked about. Roxy is one of the charging solution be looked at and that is mostly but which I understood the pill box is the function, best decision making function, do people talk see? It's kind of language. They have to make a decision about whether each equation lunch. So they talked into different notes that you can find more details. That it's like the only challenge would like to set up because you need to be out of expertise of Bill proxy. You are going to

do it. I something goes wrong wrong with the water the store, but he doesn't answer. When download Bible prophecy. He needs to be reached to the pill proxy a people than. Okay, well I'm fixing some problems and let me help out another challenging year. The next time we are going for Gold collection at exit off the sexy. It's also keep in mind that we should be able to scale our database applications and also support the property. So it should be up at the dumpling. Soap and basically it's like pretty much better shape. Now, they supposed to self because

I actually was a little bit complex to set up the remove a lot of stuff from it. And also the compatibility because it should not be like it is compatible with the stuff on the second only Power. They was he might have a lot of time. He really make it possible to a house with the latest version of mastitis version of food festival. I'd only challenging part left over. There is two maintenance operations like if you because in your notes are different

and that will be a challenging job, you to deal with the kitchen or separately. Somehow people find still difficult to achieve it. Let's move next. Display of second-placed real proxy. And we spoke about the Legacy model of which we call the best posters excella, the both of them, have the great advantages and then fear of the limitations with these two tools and I'll, I'll just quickly touching upon the video. We have no second quadrant, it's purely an Enterprise solution for having a multimaster replication, geographically

located hydraulic and always on and across the globe, kind of a setup. So you will be able to go hard and set up your video and then make the Availability to a next levela, we call it as very high availability model and the only limitation of a pedia is got to be a support customer of second quarter. And I will not get in too much details about that because we are on a different topic of discussion here. So let's let's go out and see what is the belt? Tensioner dangerous. So basically we don't want to do

it and what are the options available with the code for Driscoll part? And that's where we got it. Charging. So basically, we achieve the building with a friend that I possibly have a PW. Which is law allows us to push down the queries to the editor. Note, 8, and note to get results faster and then combined results at the coordinator know, Jessica Lea, Mayfield note and then send it back to the application. So, instead of processing, a lot of data at a

single instance, we are just handling job to another note and then what are the result getting back and then heading back to the application. It still need to buy some development. Like we need to be something like a Global Connection Manager and a project manager to make the clear out more easy transaction management and as well as some kind of like back up and snap chatting, those kind of stuff that needs to be taken care. So let's look at one of the

slide know. I was actually trying to see, you know, what are we can put in one slide and then another tiger medically, explain what we would like to do in the next 25 to 30 minutes getting up and getting this Garden solution, we wanted to have to upload. This guy talked about horizontal scalability, how the architecture should be or look like. So like application, Haitian language and identify load balancer, which basically is take care of Lord balance between you are a note video, what is what Lord you're having? Just divided up amongst a

different notes that the one. Well, like you was at all during the street and Avalon, Brew want to the next can be a number of currently, we don't have any such limit of us, but what's the best route to the number best food for you design and Equipment. The carnitas at basically a decision, maker aware about which data resides on which they turn out, so that it can help. I still only. No. And try to process the equator and get the results back and I share it back to the application. So it basically has all the required to have a communication and do a beer after

data and missing. The last time we actually have a video about the X intercepts and then we can have multiple but at least plus one why because there is a reason behind if what happens if my data nor goes down I don't have any data for my credit to get in so that's the reason we have And that's basically normal simplification between to return hours. And then how come he's coming to the load. Balancer coordinator different, Protocols are methods to divide up

so we understood that okay, we have a number of queries that divide them equally across my data notes. Akinator North so that they can have equally load order. We can have it for Saturday as well. You can divide in person if you want some for some more over that way that you have different mechanisms to eat and then basically it's like Allison should between Garnett one edition, no mods or I would come to load balancer and then load balancer came to know that transaction. Find the corner to

one, basically. Understand what are the claws used in the query. And according to that, understand the required data for parasites in which data Note and the basically push down that created to that particular date. And then it is possible that they might sometimes required to hit you to know as well because depending on your query acquirement, requirement it sometimes need to send the 42 respect to the channel, to get the results back and chairs back. That's how we're dividing the work. Need to be done.

So that's it. Can I have the mic please from the only data node one? So my slave has been activated. But how about my IP of the slave? Note 8 is no PT bones are in the Middle with IP address or the host name, given to know how I can actually relate to this cluster as a Haitian player application. Generally, you make how you make it a chair, like some kind of VIP VIP to make, make it point. If someone goes down about another, should be get promoted and should be in a master keys. So those mechanisms you need

to list for each day. Turn out plaster. Yeah, things that a company which can be against Putin. I suppose it might not need it need to behave like failure mechanism and I would go and vote for the VIP model require the least effort to get things done. Yeah, but the setting up and having a replica of load balancer because it doesn't have any point in time today and then another instance of a proxy and then again because then the application should be able to

show that they are the data is to go into different data notes. How do we do that data distribution? Just we can use for this one. So we're going to talk about both approaches. Between the the master Nolan. The closest investigation. Yes, please. You have a global operation, like order by and distinct count. Kind of operations will coordinator be doing that or one of the data, nor would be taking care of that. When the glory comes from the application, if you come to the coordinator and depending on, you have conditions, according to accounting of what needs to be done. If you

are bring some operations, too. Okay? This is a great option to see if the partition Keys used in the filter or not and depending on the planet, all the way on the answer would be to the planet. The optimizer will be working hand-in-hand with the coordinator. Not do you send it with the way conditions coordinator, recording device that plan under particular to the underlined digit. That every application can fit into the sharding, right? So you need to check what kind of workload, you're having what kind of tree of business requirement

you're having and whether that is fitting into a shouting system. If it is fitting, then if possible condition some requests like that, okay, my data is I'm preaching the date at which is, which is from the other and then there's no point in having dinner at division, right? Because if I'm pretty sure that okay I need only set of data if you are looking for the model with you, okay. I want to all data to be first and then I'm leaving dividing their time into multiple,

not then we're not leaving anything out of it in a vehicle in the development like this poses a b w town as well, which type of processing. How would I get partition quinoa in Dover close but if it be, if we don't use it, then we definitely will have to go for it and then not connected. Does suboxone about the Sorting, but I will take a step back and take a look at how much of time IGN rating across the instant before, even get into the magic figure out. What is

the exact, what Monday Labor Day? I will take a look at the amount of time for a generation and then go about 6. Hey, Mike, where is some of the things running on the application editing? A large amount of time? Then that's an indicator for me to go ahead and say, Hey, you are not crying out loud for my mode of work. Now. Before you, when you get to the place of, whether I go ahead and set up and then anybody planner Large amount of work. You got to take a look at the temple generation. That one question from here.

Like Mandela. A small and hibiscus about the way you asked about how we can distribute the date and have, it will be the partner to be aware of everything. So this is the best approach I got. We're going to a post in Alton's, best approach. Like we have inheritance partitioning in the polls. Best fight scenes long and before the Security package from the post and we're going to be a totally lying on this one. So basically, I used his pockets 5th which is partition monthly basis and will have a table with all data. You can

push the date that they mention that when you left I think you can do it from that but because of the trigger best. Partitioning, it may take some more time, so when you are doing a lot of Buffalo to in Sedona later and then we need to have an extension for recline. Lever extension on coordinator, in 2 hours for and several definitions and the user mapping which will be used to communicate with them. So far each get a note, we need to be our kind of definition of adapt so that when they want to reconnect with a better note. OK,

Google mapping, which can be used to connect to the debtor? No, I have not gotten it or not. And I respect you for and table, for a particular partition. For example, example, of September, 2019 partition Dayton. We need to have a folding table on the coordinator, which is that, okay, this is a partition of talk his teeth and the respect you, because you're the best mechanism. We need to have a ticket function, which will making sure that when you are inserting data

from the application is not, it is possible that sometimes application was to enter some data. If you go to the application taken care of that, it doesn't answer if there's a particular Wednesday 5, okay? For this Arrangement, go to the incident return or is that another day. Different. So that's the reason we need to have a chigger best. So put you out there who are Alonda pg10 available Yeah. I see if you Jansen Tuesday, 9 or 6:10 and then you ain't stopping. This approach also has some limitations by Design

Polly Define because it's a manual process. If you missed Define and there's no internet connection to check the the borders of the check consent Life by mistake. And my data is going to the same, get a different body. Shapes of need to be, make sure that I'm getting packages. You are so. Okay. And that's a problem with the like, index can be applied on a single table and they are not entitled to the child table. So if you want to have a different indexes, you can

create because I am disabled, but individual partitions, but we cannot have like a few things in this on the parent of the new Phila to Medical distributor. We don't have that. So like if you all want to update about some kids that need to be handled separately because I didn't need to be the true need to be moved to California. Not depending on what value of partisan. So you are changing and their challenges in vacuum and lots of pictures into bed and

separately for each instance, So, go ahead. We we have some sample set of examples. How old is behaves when we have a pretty on the return or basically, I have petitioned my data, be to buy that. I'm just use the stock exchange example, and I just use the van there, so I could buy at different times it is. So basically, I buy poly food at 2-month arranged in between so that it will at least get to the address to put it on out physically depending on the freeway conditions, we have used in the where Clause it is hitting to the respect. You date a note that the darkest before the

October. Because that ain't we, I mention in the query requires me to be hit with a nose and it is not really not a thing to eat nor because in the example, we are having almost 4 to 5 North How far apart is December. Soap and some more plants like we have seen the operator like asthmatic greater than less than Clauses in the very close to what are so far the between and ankles as well. So that someone might think, okay, if I have a design like this one, will it work it? So

yes you could work for that. Isn't that far as well without hitting here for the temporary again then there's also an example of 300 partition T column into a barre class with the Vatican call him. You are also printed in with some other, which is not really an up. Okay? This talk ID and the date range is. I didn't belong to the trade date range and on their respective Date and Switch will not hit to the Author, not unless the data doesn't reside, so they're

optimized in our weight. So that's the examples. I have just seen your share with you like how the pain sharding behaves and some sample set of queries. An ultrasound at 7 challenges. When we have a requirement of updating seam roof what is it? Go back to the design. If you consider, okay what what is the trooper is coming from different coordinator? And they're trying to have one single Did they allowed Bill Irwin consistency? Okay. And what would they look like before the second one?

Okay, let's see what happens to the coordinator one and sent to update record. And on the same time, second corner has another time because they think I wrote it real fast catalog, and then, after the volume, please, it is asking for trouble. Not get a chance. Unless first one treat. So the second make me wait for love to be released. And if first, the second will cancel saying, okay, listen to update 132 update, which is not supported because that can lead to inconsistent.

For the family because in the example, I say. I'm debating a stalker and see if I'm able to different two different columns, like a stalker and sell some stock price. Has everything soccer until interpreting stock price that I'm getting different while it's not the same Wireless bring that case. I'll so it will not support because he thoroughly and they're not allowed there by design. It is not allowed to update. So that's a one of the limitations currently, we're having by the side of the conflict.

Quite a few years on posters. I am taking the video example. Again, no. Has a very, very foolproof mechanism of garage Solutions in the water level at the college level and stop. Every, every movie Gordon, germinate, so much of maturity on the products. You go ahead and add features and I don't know about taking the limitations of a paper plate. In the previous Laird, there was the second career, which was waiting. Play Waiting For Love release by other all the other transaction, would this be cured.

And then later executed when the log is released or what is just be ignored and cancer. For the update as fail. Yeah, yeah. But you need to be like this will be returned back to the application and then application will come to me. Okay. We're about to be Dr. Where we are having more better contact information for customers in case if you have a h? A, i don't know if you have multiple distributed database as know, we always make sure the application as a mechanism is failing

from the Phaeton 2001 permutation and combination that can go against so we always recommend our customers. Yep. The limitations like we should we just pick someone? Lets you have them, like, do we have enough? But still we are the walking in progress and Jonathan are the limitations so far. Some of them might be get resolved very soon, but this is the current one that. But if you have a foreign key on the table, on the Pottery, Barn table and the eunuch in this on the bank, which cannot be a support, that cannot be a politician. And the second one is

if you want to use a concurrent re-index operations, Then it is not supporting you have to do it and it will take a note. If you cannot do a concurrent Windex on them parent table, you have to go today in Staten Island and also like my daughter Leah, maintenance operations, like the vacuum on the lights need to be performed in the History Channel. Yeah, but if you need to be a hundred different stock, history, and petition will not be. So we need to be taken care of it.

Be sent across the vacuum repair in table with expected but greater Clarity on what is inside, which is not the case in this. Yeah, that's the best I can do. You're still hurting a Shear lock. When you're doing the vacuum analyze in case of a vacuum. Yeah, vacuum. I understand better analyze or something. Right? If you are just wait till you have to partition. Partition is loaded and we're no analyzing partition. B is getting loaded. Kids will definitely

have no. What is expected. So I'm kind of new to partition causes of our database B96. So it kind of grows a lot in size and you had mediation with a particular server on that part of the World Cup. Can you split the partition overtime? Divide that partition and expanded to multiple data notes, by splitting. Time, do does mechanism to the charging case, right? You want to do a split on a particular range with them. And those could be two different, foreign tables, again.

How a number of partitions, you can attach to the parent when there's no limitation but you need to understand that, okay, with you for this particular server on purpose, or what and how to communicate with that, unless we have the phone and able definitions acquirement definition, you can create a number of partitions. Another important piece I would go ahead and take her is whenever you go on a splitting them coordinator, not know the matter of the coordination. With the split is identified by our application,

SQL queries are not for us, is to make sure but hitting the right data node. And then patching only the result was off of. Data Note. Tighten up, quick. Follow-up questions, can the different table as a partisan? Can you have some partitions from that? In 12 years. you mean declarative one with the deciding like So, just wanted to check about the details, how are we going to deal with Adidas? If I'm adding a column to a table of different individual definitions in all the notes, right? How is that going to be taken care in charting?

I think we need to update. If you do algebra on the parent, apply for here. It will not allow me to directly. I'll tell her to call them, or do I need to make sure that the column in the partition table 22br. So it would not occur because a new Dewalt table under the table. Tables that are related to other chicken tenders and also that's why I do not taken care of it explicit taken care of. Yeah. Yeah, we can right in the middle of what you can write a different way to

achieve it. And I'm going to talk about like one of the example of which I have used for the auto shot in Canada with a similar way, with your mentioning that matchup. Let's, let's go. So basically I'm going to about like everyone like okay I don't want to be design scheme and everything. Is it possible to have a table and underneath side and should be clear. Everyone loves about that. You would like with that job for them. So I was thinking and then I was thinking without taking any possible or not. So

I used some type of 200 motor switch, used for the artist Hardy. I'm going to see the answer, like, what solution we have. This is what kind of my work around it. So difficult coronavirus Mike or you can just look at and you can also use it to make it run better. I have used up all the blankets also up another country or part of husband and I have used to maintain the information about how many we are having their contact information, for language learning and everything and

take care, self create our own user mapping and even trigger switch. I've used to create the definition, required definition on the remote. North 350 K table. It will take care of that. Okay, this is the table definition. I'm going to copy the definition and basically going to actually create the same definition Lifted example of core part, I have done it. So basically, like a port number and password. and there is another function, which I have used if there is an

entry into a table behind it, The secret behind it, which will take care of that. You can go and create a folding table, and using my PS4 controller and using mapping for their particular removed. I have this example that the snap of delete because I'm just butt out of the house for a bit until it's okay. And Treason definition, which actually basically. Yeah. But you have a table definition of the remote note, which that case of the definition, or definition

for Nathan, and respect for, and tables will be created with a second stand and whatever the mechanism you want. My example, support hash. Because if I have to know, divide, the same data across North comes, it will try to push to the first. No, depending on the idea that has been. So these are basically the way I have developed. And it's like a dingaling. I have used, which basically have the ability to connect to the remote note and can exist. Also benefits of charging basically, why I've been looking is

Improvement using the scalability up was exciting because definitely is one of the well-known and widely used game systems the pictures, which we talked about the limitations or anything. So we can expect them to get away from very soon and we haven't played starting a place where I need to be taken care of with a spirometer. All the slice will be made available on Friday convert iron. If you haven't put any questions, thank you guys. Thank you.

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