Nick is infatuated with disasters of all kinds and the amazing things we can learn from them. When he’s not stuck in a Wikipedia binge loop reading about plane crashes, he leads the engineering team at Muve Health, helping build software to improve the joint replacement experience for patients and their caregivers. He works remotely from Austin, TX, and spends his spare time hanging out with his wife and kids, going on runs, and trying to brew the perfect cup of coffee.View the profile
About the talk
When Chuck Yeager broke the sound barrier for the first time, he set off a race around the world to do the same thing with a plane full of paying passengers. The US, Russia, UK, and France all wanted a piece of the inevitable fortune to be made building aircraft to cross oceans faster than sound itself.
In the end, though, only one design flew passengers in significant numbers, the Anglo-French Concorde. Why? Let’s figure out what allowed the British and French to succeed where others failed. Along the way, we’ll learn a little about compromise and constraints and a lot about success itself.
Nickolas Means loves nothing more than a story of engineering triumph (except maybe a story of engineering disaster). When he's not stuck in a Wikipedia loop reading about plane crashes, he spends his days as a Director of Engineering at GitHub. He works remotely from Austin, TX, and spends most of his spare time hanging out with his wife and kids, going for a run, or trying to brew the perfect cup of coffee.
Okay, here we are. This is one of our last talks for the day. We only have a couple of things remaining and I you're all in for a treat. So Mike has already said something that I share, I sent him and I share, which is Nick is one of my favorite conference speakers of all time. Nick has an incredible ability of Storytelling. He has an incredible ability of walking us all as audience members through a journey. So you are all in for a treat. If you're not familiar with Nick or Nicholas means so a couple of quick things. So before we got David and Nick so if you didn't know there is
a head-to-head competition going on in unannounced competition between the five cares the run walk roll five cares and the 30-minute exercisers there is 25 cares. Who is logged it in 21 30 minutes that I've logged out. So if you have not yet put in your 30 minutes, or if you've already done a 5k or 30 minutes of exercise, I just haven't recorded it into the air table. Now's the Time Mrs. Unofficial competition. But heck, why not? Here were so close. The last thing I would have threw out. There is your 62nd. Ruby story, there is a channel called by 62nd Ruby story and I
would love if you took a moment to tell us what is your 60 Second Story that got you? Into this community is an incredibly vibrant, incredibly loving and Incredibly caring community and I want to encourage all of you who have a story of any kind, what got you here, what was that inside a blog post video or person that brought you into all of this? So if you would head on over there, let us know. Okay, well, without further Ado, I want to introduce Nick means and bring him onto the stage.
Almost there, almost there, my friend. Hello. I am very excited to introduce you. I really do mean that you are one of my very favorite speakers. So, I'm excited too, excited to share you with the world. Nick, that's what we're going to be driving to sharing you with the work cited to be here before I go. In a question for you, if I was into 5 days and 30 minutes of exercise, should I login? I don't know, I didn't create the rules. I only created the rules Nick, who knows?
But without further Ado, Nick, the floors you order the stage is yours. Thank you so much for that and to Adam, it is such a privileged exec. My friends in the Ruby Community, I had to miss Ruby, Conte and railsconf last year, and that was such a bummer. So I am so happy to be back. May remember seeing a different talk on the schedule, for me, I had to make a change last-minute. Unfortunately, we lost our sweet 17 year old, dog last Friday, and I just didn't have the emotional capacity to finish running my giant
pile of notes into a finish talk. The good news is that I have another talk that I wrote recently. That actually gets it. A lot of the same themes, so I hope you enjoy it. It's a no secret at this point that I like planes. But today is a special day for me because I get to tell you the story of one of my very favorite planes Concord Do tell the story. Well, I have to start several decades before anyone even started thinking about Concord. Because I understand what Concord achieve we have to start my understanding supersonic flight and that means starting with the Bell X-1, This Plane piloted by
Chuck, Yeager and Howard by 4 Rocket, Motors was the first aircraft to fly faster than the speed of sound in level flight, flying at a Brisk Mach 1. .06 about six hundred miles an hour on October 14th 1947 breaking. The sound barrier was a huge achievement until Yeager didn't came back home safely. It was a widely held belief that doing so would be unsurvivable. And this is for the reason because so many previous attempts to fly close to the speed of sound had, indeed, proven. Fatal pilot. 16 + 0.7 International songs on often encountered strange problems with their planes out of control,
zero would freeze because of the aerodynamic Lowe's on the wings, the controls on a supermarine Spitfire would reverse unpredictably somewhere between Mach 0.7, - 0.9 is the wings flex and the plane would do the opposite of what the pilot commanded it to do. And the Haviland e. H 108 swallow phone and progressively faster dies in a program attempting to fly faster than the speed of sound experience. Severe buffeting. Just above my 0.9 causing it to break part. There's a reason it came to be called the sound barrier. So what exactly happens to a plane as it gets close to the speed of sound,
understanding that we need to talk about how wing works in the first place for his principal says that in any fluid including are an increasing speed results. In a decrease. In pressure airplane, wings are designed to take advantage of this, the curve of the top of an airplane wing. Slightly increases the distance there has to travel to get over the top forces below. Meaning it has to move faster, ever known as principal tells us that faster speed means that the pressure on top of the wing is lower. And that lower pressure is what gives the wing lift. That all changes, the plan
approaches the speed of sound at speeds below mock 0.7 air flows around the wing smoothly as the air gets faster though. It starts to move too fast for the air to move out of the way before it gets there. So the air at the Leading Edge of the wing starts to compress causing tremendous track. And then, once the Earth passed, the Leading Edge of the wing. It rapidly, decompresses, causing a Shockwave that disrupts. The flow of air over the wing. This means the wind struggle. The wing struggles to efficiently, generate lift this Dragon reduction and lift is why it seemed like there was a
barrier at Mach 1 was literally, like, hitting a wall. That one was able to break Mach 1.0 because it was basically a falling bullet. The fuselage was actually modeled after Fifty caliber machine-gun, bullet shape known to be stable at supersonic speeds, it had shorts 10 wings, which minimize the dragon shockwaves they created, but they also didn't eat very much left. The meaningful payload of the X1 was fuel plus a single person. People the world over were speculating, that are supersonic future in the idea of jaunting, from New York to London after hearing how fast the Bell. X-1 could
go. But we were a long way from being able to do it. The next big breakthrough in flying supersonic. We was the fairy Delta to respond in 1954 in becoming the first plane to exceed a thousand miles per hour in level flight, B ft, to introduce the concept of the deltawing, which had a couple of significant benefits. First on a traditional design, the elevators, the control surfaces, controlling the pitch up and down of the plane on the field plane, because the wing on a dump, the design is so elongated, it doesn't need a tail playing at all. Instead using alabanza combination of elevators
and ailerons on the trailing edge of the wing, to control, both pitch and roll II. The design has a huge advantage and how much surface area presents to the Earth moving through. Both designs have roughly the same Wing surface area but because the winds are so deeply swept and there's no tailplane. The Delta design has a much smaller surface area facing forward for compression because drag at supersonic speeds. The design does have one. Huge disadvantage though. It's incredibly inefficient at subsonic speeds in order to produce enough lift to get off the ground and client has to fight a
very steep angle of attack, and that takes a lot of fuel. The empty to prove the superiority of the deltawing for high-speed flying. But the inefficiency of the wing at low speeds meant that an airliner size Delta Boeing plane that have to carry so much fuel. It wouldn't have enough useful load left to carry passengers. It was a step in the right direction, but it wasn't enough. Did I step out quickly early 1955? Doctor is beef jerky. Chew on and Jana Weber working together at the Royal aircraft establishment published a series of papers detailing a concept, they called the Slender
deltawing. It was already known that. Any deltawing flying at low speed. In a reasonably high angle of attack would create a Vortex over the wing running along each side of the fuselage, nor you want to reduce or disease. Other kinds of turbulent air flow over a wing. But in this case, could you wanted Weber theorize that these vortices might be doing an important job speeding up air flow over the top of the wing. And according to Bernoulli's principle faster are is lower pressure so these vortices or actually generating left The couch while I'm in labor, when a step further
their studies indicated that the more swept-wing was meeting the smaller, the angle between the fuselage in the Leading Edge of the wing. The more pronounce this word X effect was and the longer the wing. The more surface area of the sport X had to act on increasing the lift. It was able to generate that meant that a slender, long Delta should be able to generate more lift at low speeds in a standard. Delta and so, are you decided to test it? They build a prototype, the plane. They built the Handley page HP. 115 is nothing more than a test bed for the Slender Delta concept. The only
don't want it served, no other purpose but it worked perfectly. You can see the planes are flying at the necessary, high angle of attack and the smoke shows the vortex has formed over the way you can see it's swirling as it comes off the trailing edge of the wing there. Given the extra lift generated by the vortices. Displaying was safely controllable of slow at 70 miles, an hour, which is a 300% improvement over previous Delta Boeing planes now. This was enough for the UK government to fund study contracts due to British aircraft manufacturers to attempt to design a slender, Delta, supersonic
transport The Brits were the only ones working on an SSD across the English Channel, the French had launched their first successful supersonic plane as well. That's all true, Mister a fighter-bomber the French do the British have begun SST project eager to not get left behind so they began pursuing an SSD in Earnest the French government awarded grants to three manufacturers. North Aviation sued Aviation and dassault to Begin work on S St. Concepts for design competition across the Atlantic in 1956. The Americans had just flown The Mach 2 capable Condor b-58, the first supersonic, bomber
was a great design, it was difficult to control and had a very narrow flight envelope. But it could carry a significant load at twice. The speed of sound American aircraft manufacturers were trying to Parlay this expertise of bearing load quickly in something that could carry passengers. Does the US government just wasn't interested. So funding was sparse. And then the USSR their focus on the Space Race wouldn't prevent them from getting it on supersonic flight as well. There they had a couple of Super Sonic fighters in the famous Mig series including this mig-21 in 1958 just after the
launch of Sputnik they debuted explain the cycle of yak 28. It's not a big plane but it is a bomber with the meds are basically a cockpit strapped to an engine. This plane has significant load capacity. The Soviets also knew through their extensive Espionage Network that the UK and France at both begun working on a supersonic passenger plane. And so, he took what they knew and they set to work. That's what the end of the decade in 1959. There were four nations in the race to fly a plane full of passengers faster than the speed of sound UK, France, the US and USSR. All of them just getting
started. The French would be the first to tip their hand and I'm seeing this playing at the 1961 Paris. Air show the center of the commercial. Aviation World design had won the competition among French manufacturers. It was intended to fly 75 passengers at Mach 1.2 on mid-range Overland routes within Europe. The French announcement at the Paris Air Show kicked off a few key developments in the SST race first. Not to be outdone by the French. The Soviet government announced their SST project, the tupolev tu-144 early 1962, this publicly confirmed for the UK us and France and Soviets
were indeed working on an SSC. Second, despite the lack of government funding. NASA had been funding SST research and development in the US, via the scat prototypes, in the name of General aeronautical, research the inauguration of John F, Kennedy in 1961 change, the US government position on SSD almost overnight and the US handed research contracts are four major US. Aircraft manufacturers to develop the massive prototypes in the plains with design competition entries. Do three years later in 1964. And finally, the French announcement presented a solution to a problem. The British were
very eager to solve Bristol. Aircraft had won the UK SST, design competition with this design, the Bristol, Pike 223. It was two seat, 90 people and fly Mach two point. To the problem was a bow out of the British overseas Airways Corporation. The predecessor of British Airways said that while it would be delighted to buy and arthritis. A disease that they made economic sense, they would not be willing to Bear any of the cost of development. That meant that the British government would need to fund the project if it were to happen, given the estimated cost of the development of the
unknowns involved, the British government needed a partner to Bear the risk. The super Caravelle design of the French pronounce. Was so similar to the Bristol 223 that they made perfect sense. Together, the French I found themselves in the same dilemma as the British had a great design, but they couldn't afford to take on the risk to develop it. And so the transport Ministers of the British and French governments instructed, the AC installation to get together and work out a combined design, a short treaty signed in late, 1962, cemented, the country's relationship and gave the
project. Its name concord, meaning peace and unity in both English and French. The Americans were busy with the design competition things started, moving very quickly in Europe and the design company design for Concord was finalized. Construction of two prototypes began in February of, 1965 one of the suit Aviation Factory in Toulouse and the other with a BAC Factory in Shelton. The next year in the u.s. Boeing's entry to 2707 was named the winner of the design competition. This isn't early full-scale mock-up of the design, it was to hold 277 passengers and it was designed to fly Mach two
point seven. What are the key components of the design was a swing Wing mechanism, which you can see here, the wing wood swing forward for efficiency and low-speed flight and swing back into a Delta configuration that I might drag at supersonic speeds expected in early. 1967 aiming for a first flight in 1970, they knew they were behind Concord so if they were going to be late bringing their ssd2 Market, they at least wanted to bring a better ssd1 that carried more passengers and went faster. Later that year on December 11th 1967. The first Concord prototype has rolled out of the hangar at
suit Aviation Factory in Toulouse, France, in a ceremony attended by the media, and dignitaries from both countries. Now the wings are obviously the biggest innovation in the Concord, but let's talk about a few of the other things that make this design so special. First, if you know anything about Concord, besides, it was fast. You probably know about its troop knows. But why was that necessary? What? All goes back to the wing shape. Despite the vortex, optimization Concord still has to fly to significant angle-of-attack. Did you write lift while flying slow including wind coming in for
landing that steep angle would mean that the pilots couldn't see the runway for the nose of the plane. So they simply folded the nose with a streamlined windscreen down out of the way. Revealing the primary when screen behind the double windscreen configuration. Had the side effect of reducing the need for cooling in the cockpit by keeping some of the mock 2.0 kinetic eating from reaching it, but the windscreen wasn't the only place kinetic. Eating was a concern, it affected the entire plane What is kinetic eating? Well, as you compress air, it gets warm. If you ever filled up car
tires and noticed the hose getting warm as you did it, this is what you're experiencing. There's also significant friction against the leading edges of a plane also generating heat what this means is that when Concord is going Mach 2, it could be over 240 degrees Fahrenheit of the tip of its nose with slightly lower temperatures elsewhere. So the designers Concord did a few specific things to cope with this heat. First, the very deliberately chose just over Mach 2. .04 Conchords Target Cruise speed as they were designing the plane and the reason for that, was it a Concorde when any faster
than Mach two point two? They couldn't build it out of aluminum? Aluminum is fantastic for building plans because it's strong and light, but it begins to lose its structural Integrity, around 266 degrees Fahrenheit going, any faster than Mach two point. Two, like the Mach two point seven, the Americans were designed for men that they have to work with an exotic metal like titanium. And it would be, it would significantly extend their timeline 2, .0 was a very pragmatic choice but it might 2.0 Concord but still if you made a lot of heat, they still need to keep their
passengers comfortable and keep things like hydraulic fluid and oil from overheating. They came up with a very clever answer for that. They use. Their fuel is a heatsink just before they burned it. There heat exchangers in the engine feed tanks that took heat from the air conditioning packs of hydraulic system and the oil system and heated up the fuel just before it was burned. All. Texas heat, but right off the engine exhaust, keeping the passengers, nice and cool in the plane working beautifully. They also use fuel interesting way to keep the plane trimmed. One of the effects of flying
supersonic Lee is that because of the change in force is exerted on the Wings by pressurized air in shock waves. The wing Center of lift moves further back as a plane speeds up this pushes the back of the plane up in the nose of the plane down. Now, conventional wisdom would say to use the elements to account for this applying a slight nose up for us, but using elevons would add drag-reducing, Conchords range. Instead, were destroyed by moving fuel around as a plane speeds up. She was gradually pump from these tanks in the front to this tank in the back of the plane. The added ballast,
counteracts. The shift in the wing Center of lift by moving the plane center of gravity rearward as well, helping at flight level, without having to pay any drag arrange penalties. The Conchords biggest Innovation was its ability to Super Cruise, most supersonic aircraft in the bill. To this point, could only fly supersonic Lee for a few minutes. And the reason for this is that they had to use afterburners to achieve supersonic speed, the orange glow of afterburners. What many of us, think of when we think of jet engines, but most jet engines, don't work this way. You'll never see this
happening on a commercial plane to fly today. What an afterburner actually is this fuel injected into a jet engine exhaust, stream and lit. And this happens past the engine itself, the combustion, add significant. Keep the exhaust gases in because gas is expand as they're heated. This forces, the exhaust out of a jet faster, adding significant propulsion but it's horribly inefficient. Bring a tremendous amount of fuel in the process of generating, a ton of noise. This is why most planes that rely on afterburner for supersonic. Speed song by supersonic Lee for a few minutes at a time,
they'd run out of fuel. And conquered her afterburners as well. But it only needed them for a couple of specific phases of flight. They're used for takeoff, to give me an efficient at low speeds. Deltawing the extra oomph needed to get off the ground and they were used to get and Pastor the sound barrier, giving the plane, the extra boost needed to overcome, the initial resistance at Mach 1.0, Above Mach 1.5 or so though they turn the afterburners off and the engine intake cramps, that all the work the doors. You see at the front of the intakes, where danger is written in red, swing
down to reduce the size of the intake opening. This generates significant impression jet engines, work on compression, taking a huge scoop of air in the front and compressing it down and sending an error much faster, stream of air out the back. Pushing the plan along you've ever put your finger over the end of a water hose to spray water. It's the same concept. These ramps generates significant compression on the plane is flying supersonic, lyrics duesing the work, the engine itself needs to do and reducing the amount of fuel. In fact, Concord was at its most efficient when flying mut
2.0, traveling far further per gallon of fuel than any other phase of flight. Supercruise meant, that conquered had the longest supersonic range of any plane built to that point. It could fly from New York to London in three and a half hours about twice as fast as a conventional jetliner even today. But this point, all this information was still just theoretical. Concord still haven't flown the rollout. Ceremony celebrated completion of the first prototype, but there was still a year of ground testing to do before. Concords First Flight planned for early 1969. You may have noticed that we
haven't been talking much about the Soviet effort. Iron Curtain was very effective at keeping things secret until they were ready to reveal them. So it was a big shock to the world 1 on December 31st. 1968 news footage emerged from the Soviet Union of the First Flight of the tupolev tu-144. Much of the world surprised they had beaten Concord off the ground. Not much though. Concord wasn't far behind. Take him to the skies for the first time. A few months later on. March 2nd. 1969, it will be a short flight around 30 minutes at 10,000, ft and 300 miles an hour. Captain, Andre charcot never
even raised the landing gear keeping things contribute. As simply as possible the plane few flu beautifully with turcotte. Declaring afterwards. That it was even easier than he expected, much better than the simulator. America things weren't going well. Late 1968 the American team and finally come to the realization. That the 2707 was an unworkable design, the weight of the hinge mechanism for the swing Wing prove to be an insurmountable obstacle. 1 million, generic whip that if they wanted to cross the Atlantic, they need to decide between the hinge and the passengers because the
plane couldn't carry both. So that's just what they did. They pivoted to a new design with a fixed double delta wing. It looked a lot like, an overgrown conferred with the tailplane at this point though, they were way behind their competitors are already both flown and they were starting over almost from scratch. Americans were later than they realized the tupolev tu-144 would go super sonic for the first time on June 5th. 1969 again, being conquered to a critical Milestone on the 1st of October 1969. Couple years later,
1971 brought about the end of the road for the usss T project Congress. Threw in the towel and eliminated Government funding for the project going in already, spent more than the entire Concord program would spend. And all they had to show for it, was this full size wooden mock-up. Five years later Concord is completed. All of its required tests and trials and received a certificate of airworthiness from European Regulators. It could enter service beating the tu-144 to the Milestone that counted the most. And so the first Concorde was handed over to British Airways on January 15th, 1976.
A week later and takeoffs coordinated to the second from London and Paris, Concorde commercial service. The British Airways flight from London to Bahrain and the air flight Air France flight from Paris to Rio De Janeiro. Why does destinations because the US Congress in a move, largely considered protection Mystic headband, Concord in US airspace for 6 months. Six months later on May 24th 1976 the ban would expire and ba and Air France celebrated with coordinated Landings, about 10 minutes apart at Washington Dulles Airport. Why not New York? Well, after
the Congressional ban expired, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey band. Concord, based on noise concerns, it wasn't until October 22nd 1977 17 months later that the US Supreme Court declared the Port Authority overstepped, its Authority, and Concord was finally able to land at JFK initiating, the iconic London and Paris to New York Route, that is best known for The t144 would finally enter passenger service on November 1st 1977 nearly two years after Concord. But by all accounts, it wasn't very comfortable experience. Cabin noise was measured at 95, decibels about as
loud as a lawn mower. When you're pushing it passenger seat of that next to each other could only talk to each other by yelling and also had an incredibly High failure rate. And aeroflot, only flew it because the Soviet government told them they had to when I had a flight, they would offer prepare for tu-144 is and hopes that one of them actually be able to complete the schedule service. The tu-144 made, only 55 passenger flights and all before, it was withdrawn from service. So what was it that made Concord successful? Why did the anglo-french Consortium succeed in delivering a plane
with the Americans and Soviets didn't Or at least, I thought that's what the stock was going to be about when I proposed it, but the answer to that question is pretty simple compared to the American effort. The Concord team made much more pragmatic choices. The going cuz I was much more complicated. Me to be built out of more complicated materials because it was higher speed this over each with its downfall. And the project was canceled after fishing software. Here is pretty obvious. The Soviet comparison is a little more interesting, but the thing that did it in was partial
understanding. You probably noticed the similarity of this design, the Concorde in this is for good reason, significant portions of the tu-144 design where do right from Concord by way of the KGB, but they didn't apply all of the concept. Exactly right. They didn't have a full understanding. The wing ship was similar, but the tube love was missing some of the 3D sculpting that makes Concord Wing. So effective in producing Vortex, mean with you 144 need to be moving faster to take off, and had to come and much faster land. This e144 position, detentions much, like awkward. Even use some of
the same Technologies internally, but it's super Cruise limiting its range significantly. It didn't have the range to cross, any oceans. The lesson here is to be careful what you and your team adopt from the practices and product, decisions of others. If you don't deeply understand the things you're adopting, you'll likely not get the results you're seeking from them. Elizabeth important lessons but it got deeper into writing this talk. I realize that those lesson three surface and there was a much more interesting question here for us to ask. What's Concord actually successful? Well,
let's look at the numbers. The estimated cost for Concord with 70 million pounds about 168 million dollars at historic exchange rates, the actual development cost for Concord came in at 1.134 billion. With a B pounds around 2.7 billion dollars a 16% cost overrun, that's about 20 billion dollars today that cost was paid by the British and French governments. That's a song about sales at its peak Concord had more than a hundred outstanding options as the reservations from Airlines for delivery slots, British overseas Air, France and panty. I'm ready to launch
customers with six, Conchords each in the end though, only 14, everyone a disservice 70s. For British Airways and Air. France, a couple reasons for that one was fuel economy. Concord could fly passenger, 17 Mi on a gallon of fuel. Compare that to the Boeing 707 at 33, passenger miles per gallon, about half as efficient, but that was an acceptable trade-off given how much faster across the Atlantic. But then came the Boeing 747 400. In this new turbofan engines cranking out 73 passenger miles per gallon. Conchords engines were so inefficient. It would burn two tons of fuel about
2% of, its full fuel load, just taxing out to the runway before it ever took off. Another problem with Sonic booms over the shock wave that's produced by the compression in the decompression of air. In front of the plane that Shockwave goes, all the way to the ground and creates a Sonic Boom. The same way lightning create thunder, only much more concentrated and it's not just one, but when the plane crosses the sound, very it's continuous under the flight path. If a supersonic plane flies over you, you'll hear a boom. In Spring of 1960, for the FAA conducted, an experiment over Oklahoma City,
Oklahoma called project Bongo for my favorite project names ever. They subjected the citizens of OKC to Sonic booms 8 per day, starting at 7 a.m. to see how people reacted the test lasted for six months. 1253 Sonic booms and all over the first 14 weeks of testing alone, 147 windows were broken in. Oklahoma City's two tallest buildings and received nearly 10,000 complaints. The conclusion was that regular supersonic flight over land was a complete. Non-starter in fact, it was made illegal in the US in 1973, largely as a result of these tests,
Concord will be restricted to overwater routes and Conchords rangement at the London and Paris to New York Route was really the only natural fit for it. Only British Airways and Air. France follow through on their commitments to buy Concord. So what's Concord successful? Massive cost overruns, terrible fuel economy? Almost non-existent sales, seems like a clear know, but Concord was such a failure. Why do I have pictures like this? That's a British Airways Concorde flying in formation with the Royal Air Force Red Arrows. The UK's version of the Blue Angels at the Royal
International Air tattoo in 1985 or this 1986 photo of an Air France, concordes leading, the trade of France, the French Air Force demonstration team at left for today, Air Show. Or this 2002 photo of a British Airways Concorde leading. The Red Arrows pass Westminster Abbey is part of the Queen's golden jubilee celebration just a year before the Concorde Fleet retired. Or this photo. From last year's edition of the royal International Air tattoo of the red arrows and the pass rate of France flying together and Concord formation 16 years after Conchords last commercial flight and the
list goes on the Concord with such a failure. Why are the UK and France? So proud of it. Turns out that this is a very nuanced question always is What's question? Got real in a hurry you probably had a pretty visceral reaction to it when it popped on screen to something a little more comfortable let's go back to my first question. Because it turns out the way that we answer. This question is the same way we should answer that. Really hard question about ourselves. Daniel, Kahneman River fantastic book about understanding how our brains work called thinking fast and slow. It's well worth
your time to read. If you haven't, there's a couple of Concepts, introduces, it'll be helpful here. The first is the law, at least. After the law says that, when we use our brains, we tend to use the minimum amount of energy possible for each task. Other words, our brains are lazy and they're constantly looking for shortcuts. And one of the shortcuts are brands, use all the time, also, discussed the book is the availability heuristic. This is a cognitive bias that causes us to rely on an overvalue. The information that's easiest for us to recall and a big chunk of what's easiest for us
to work. All the stuff that we've heard, the most recently, these two facts together. Why after I spent 25 minutes, sharing the Amazing Story of Concord and all the Innovation represents. It only took me 6, slides, to get your brain to flip and declare Concord failure. We do this all the time. So what happens when we slow down? Pull our brains out of short, cut down and actually think about Concord first, we might consider the perspective of the folks, in Aerospace, Allen VA see who designed and built Concord. They were given the task of building a plane that can carry a hundred passengers
across the Atlantic faster than the speed of sound. And they came up with the machine that was purpose-built to do. Exactly that. I plan. It was beautiful. Not because they wanted it to be, but because it had to be to fly that far that fast a plane that was so Innovative helped. Watch from the future. Even when I was twenty-five years old and begin being forced into early retirement, the designers and Builders of Concord must have considered it very successful indeed. What are the British and French governments, the foot of the 1.1 billion pound development cost. It had to have stung that
the plane didn't step. Tell me about it. I did right. Well, let's consider what the government of Britain and France were actually paying for what's the profit. Certainly, they were hoping to see that money paid back, but they weren't trying to make money. What they were actually paying for. Was this a point of national pride, multiple commentators of refer to Concord is Europe's moon landing its biggest technological Triumph. It was also a demonstration of Aviation capability British and French entrance into the commercial. Aviation Market hasn't sold widely for a variety of reasons. And
American Boeing 707 was dominating the skies everywhere. The governments of the two countries are supersonic transport as their path back to relevancy in the commercial Aviation Market. It took a while, definitely longer than they expected that they got what they paid for Airbus is a direct descendant of the anglo-french Consortium that built Concord, and this plane in particular. The Airbus A320 is the second most widely, produced commercial aircraft family, in history, behind only the Boeing 737 and probably not for much longer. So, back to my question was conquered successful,
if we focus on the sixties and seventies, the year Concord was being produced, and we look at the short-term fact would make a pretty strong case that wasn't, but it was way behind schedule. I lost a ton of money, but when we look at Conchords full and packed, the procedure brought to the UK and France, the foundational roll it served in the European commercial, aviation industry, the sheer amount of economic activity that descended from it, hard to see anything, but incredible success. Food served at the first one. But what about the rest of these? The same rules? Apply, then we often
don't have the luxury of looking back on 40 Years of History. The way that we can Concord. We do usually have more information. We take advantage of. We often asked questions like these In the Heat of the Moment sometimes in the middle of a crisis. And because of the shortcuts are brains take, we answer them to the, my optic lens of the right now. That's what makes am I successful? Such a scary question. Why we have such a visceral reaction to it? But we unconsciously answer it all the time. This project is so hard. It's way beyond my ability. I'm such a failure to sense. It is all my fault.
I can't believe I did that. I'm such a terrible engineer. I'm so far behind, I'm letting everyone down, I'm horrible manager. I said, all those things to myself at some point or some of the pretty recently, and I'm sure you have as well. But when we do that, we take a short-term evaluation. It's likely not even true or fair. And we extrapolated to the entirety of our being we tear ourselves down because our brain. Lazy by nature and take every shortcut they can answering the question. And so here's my challenge to you, zoom out think about the impact you want to have in life. The things you
actually cared deeply about where they respond to that email today or deliver that project. This quarter may be important but it's likely not enduring. Some of the relationships you built along the way. I absolutely will be your brain will stay in shortcut mode if you let it just going with the flow of events around you. So you have to choose to live intentionally, you have to choose to zoom out to remember that there's far more to life than what you're feeling, right? This moment. When your brain or some jerk speaker stop you in your tracks with this question, your breath refused to
accept your immediate answer because I guarantee you if you just zoom out the answer to this question will be just as undeniable for you as it was for Concord. I thought I'll be hanging out with like remember the van if you want to chat with me. I love to let's talk. Thanks a lot for dinner. Well, very good, nick upstart. Well exceptional, thank you so much, all for joining us now. This is moving us into the very end of our three days together. So with that being said, What is
dive over again as the last. And I don't reminder at least from me that is don't forget to jump over to the slack Channel or nickel be available to answer any questions you might have. And of course, enjoy the break. And then into our closing keynote and our final close up of the three days direct. Well, thank you so, very much everybody. It has been my pleasure and I will see you soon.
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