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SIGCOMM 2020
August 12, 2020, Online, New York, NY, USA
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Ultra-Wideband Underwater Backscatter via Piezoelectric Metamaterials
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About the talk

We present the design, implementation, and evaluation of U2B, a technology that enables ultra-wideband backscatter in underwater environments. At the core of U2B's design is a novel metamaterialinspired transducer for underwater backscatter, and algorithms that enable self-interference cancellation and FDMA-based medium access control.
We fabricated U2B nodes and tested them in a river across different weather conditions, including snow and rain. Our empirical evaluation demonstrates that U2B can achieve throughputs up to 20 kbps, an operational range up to 62 m, and can scale to networks with more than 10 nodes. In comparison to the state-of-the-art system for underwater backscatter, our design achieves 5x more throughput and 6x more communication range. Moreover, our evaluation represents the first experimental validation of underwater backscatter in the wild.

About speaker

Reza Ghaffarivardavagh
Acoustic Transducer Engineer at Apple
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Hello everybody. My name is Reza and I'm a research scientist at MIT tonight. I'm going to talk about our research and scalable and a loaf of bread and a thing for the ocean. Does the joint work with my colleagues asked, was he? And father, interesting ocean floor number of sensors transmit information? They can send us back to email or sound of the animal is to explore the ocean or a coral reef to expand our understanding of underwater. Climate ocean iot, can also called Aqua Culture, or fish farming, which is named as the fastest growing food, sector for United Nations.

Mission opportunity, existing underwater communication, technology, and not allow us to Denver on this application underwater communication. I want to communicate with the remote receiver, its success with this speaker. And yeah, we cannot use Wi-Fi or boosters to communicate underwater. So the sensor The nice thing about this approach is we can get sufficient to food. You can also communicate over a long-range, which can be in the order of 50 to 750,000

the new form of underwater communication, which is called back and gather, those transmitters and receivers are shifted to a one privilege location, which can be near the acoustic reflector It's been transferred to be so serious and want to communicate, so we can transfer any information. Because in this approach, we don't need to wake me up. This last year is this approach can give us a very limited true. About two to three clubs per second which limits

over the longest range. Why I'm having the loaf over and low cost of back together. I will be telling you about our technology square feet is the first technology that enables scalable ultra-low power and local ocean eyes. We are also introducing a novel written material design for underwater Backscatter that enable us to achieve higher and communicate while maintaining low fiber and low cost. This is also the first time was rationed of underwater Backscatter in the world

before found our experiment in the river across different weather, conditions such as snow and drink. Before, telling you more about this technology. Let me first quickly, explain to you why our prior design was limited in truth, remember that for underwater communication, acoustic, reflector and come back. There we use. What is called? Fissel electric battery. And the way that we modulate their reflection is by tuning, their vibration of the fisa section and

communicate. If you do itself and only vibrate and how long has risen us frequent so who are not familiar with what it has, let me explain to you why an example of a guitar instrument, you will hear a different song similar to this string when I hit, what looks like this. Which is Mary Matalin back on with the element because of its red or not. It has a very narrow bandwidth. And what we get is very limited troop solution to. This problem is to stack, many different frequency,

21, flowers, and other people with the restaurants at 21 flowers and so on and so forth with this solution structure and because of the area of the, we'll get our defeats the purpose of. So we start asking ourselves on how we can overcome the originals problem, while maintaining low cost, a low flower of underwater basket, The solution that the ad for this was by introducing and Noble metal material design that are not found in nature potato. Now, instead of limiting myself to just drink of quitar or a simple fix, so I can go ahead and designed the

Cure is here. He has was to create coughing between only two people. I with this coupling, you were able to send the size many more. Let me explain to you what this means, which is shown in yellow and blue. And replace the smaller Pizzo inside the larger and what's with this next season of this entire structure because the polymer is a very soft compared to do. There will be preserved in the interests of the vibration who have one recognizes corresponding to the Resonance of the larger pieces. And another mode of resonance car spawning

to the results of the NFL. But further more because of the polymer. And the contract that you have to find for the vibration of these two. Feazell will get a lot of many moles and many different form of residences that has resulted, as the interaction of between the, this moving people that to fill the gap between these two men, rather. And what is that structure with the square of the net worth of the time we were able to overcome their breath. So far

about our technology and ultra-wideband underwater basket and its strength to see how we can go from wife and behavior to keep higher, which is just simply bypass gathering at a higher rate. And also demonstrates, how you can extend the communications right? The facts get there, which is done using Auto and furthermore, we demonstrated how we can feel it. Two more notes using sdma basic roach to the luck. You see how fast I can exploded me washers and

a screw it together to encapsulated for water and selection. As far as a result we perform our experiment in Boston, Charles River and we ran more than 400 experimental tryouts at the branch to put a number that we show that we can communicate with the tooth is about 20 kilobits per second and it shows that we can improve our state too far by about five to six times. Thank you so much for watching this presentation. I really enjoyed listening to it and answering back about

10 questions on flag before even though. If this is what the cost of manufacture of Defense, Yes, I still got in the car actually decide that they know that we have designed it actually pretty cheap and that's one advantage that we can easily scale to is this time too many notes to call, Ross is around $150 to $150 for each node, but I guess it's going to be a little better energy consumption. How much energy does. One sensor temperature data cost with a date for that, we are showing he had power consumption is in order of

hundreds of a microbot, but that we have been able to reduce it to that much lower values. But for our current system in order of a 300, End vibration is. The sensor is going to be in the ocean, water me about the tag and bag because it said, Greg question as a large body of research on how we can do that. Can last for decades on underwater and that has been done using the sign off that several different packaging and assistant or you scurvy can adopt those state-of-art a

packaging design that will happen as a result of that water. Or at the hydrostatic pressure, there is one else will start Bishop, but that's not the issue for you as well. remain fully functional and imagining that once you make them completely back, if he used to pull them around and let them be but but over time but I guess that would be so cranky. The system is that they deployed this sensor and that they use their underwater drones basically pick up at this.

This transducer from under water and something can be applied here, but that's actually Greg that great. The question to think about There were lots of questions on the Slackers. The question is about the cost of the metamaterial. How did you manufacture it? What's the number is on process? Would you like to share a question about the rest of the fabrication including partying at everything and call him during a have been done in our lap and the total cost for each note which luxury

one advantage of artwork as if they're very cheap and they're around a hundred $150. For each note, I can be for the weekend for the lower it down. Great in another country is there. Did you encounter in a nonlinear editing acoustic? Signals the address that right at 2. So that's actually common issue for a when you are working in acoustic, element for communication because you need a high-power, but that's directly proportional to their to the pita element that you are using. And in our case, we are using is a ceramic,

which usually they have very high capacity to withstand that I will take before, getting into the non-linear, a proportional to the dimension. So, for dinner, and for the people that we were using, we were still in a linear agent. So we had to clear sign out of the out of the pizza. Another question is not what's a durability of the tiger under the water? What's the impact? That's actually a very good question. So there are very large body of research on that designing, a packaging for underwater

transfuse. Her to help her remain functional at DK's in the water. And our design can also directly adopt those that face of art design for, in case of variability. But there is another concern was just because of the large and that very high hydrostatic pressure in the deep ocean that we might have a little bit shift in the resonance, but that's fine for our design because we have a lot of white and behavior and even if it's late shift and resin as we will have Arnold still functional. Great time. Thank you very much for the wonderful talk.

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