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The State of Conversation Design - Designing for the Conversational Future | Rasa Summit 2021

Hans Van Dam
Co-founder and CEO at Conversation Design Institute
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Rasa Summit 2021
February 10, 2021, Online, USA
Rasa Summit 2021
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About speaker

Hans Van Dam
Co-founder and CEO at Conversation Design Institute

Companies around the world are looking for conversation designers, a rare breed of people that helps them advance communication between people and AI. That's where we help!Conversation Design Institute teaches a human-centric workflow that has proven itself to organizations around the world. We work closely with tech partners, agencies, and other key players in the industry. With this support, the Conversation Design Institute is well on its way to becoming the number one platform in conversation design.Become a certified professional, join one of our online courses, or work with our experts.

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About the talk

How do you design for an interface where people can say and do whatever they want at any given moment? In this talk, Hans van Dam explains the proven conversation design workflow that is helping brands like Vodafone, JP Morgan, Adidas, Daimler, and many others, create better chatbots and voice assistants.

You will learn how AI Trainers, Conversation Designers, and Conversational Copywriters can work together to unify the best of technology, psychology, and language. It doesn't matter if you are creating your first chatbot or are managing multi-lingual deployments at scale. This workflow helps you unlock the potential of conversational AI through design.

Hans van Dam is founder and CEO of Conversation Design Institute, world's largest training and certification institute for conversation designers. The Conversation Design Institute works with brands like Walmart, JP Morgan, Google, ABN AMRO, and many others, to make their AI Assistants more human-centric, helpful, and natural. Hans lectures at multiple universities (VU, University of Nijmegen, Goldsmiths), is a keynote speaker, podcast host, and regarded as one of the most influential people in voice (Voicebot 2020).

Presented by Conversation Design Institute Co-Founder & Dean, Hans Van Dam at the 2021 Rasa Summit https://rasa.com/summit/

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Thank you so much for joining. The session is very exciting for us, obstacle with the ra'zac or is going live. Today, we only started presentations with this gentleman here. You might know him, it's from the movie, her and her takes place in the near future. And it's about a guy that buys and Os if voice assistant any installs, it on his computer and he starts talking to at the beginning, it's incredibly awkward and it's very uncomfortable, but then you get to know each other and they start talking and they become friends and they become very good friends and they even fall in love and

have this wonderful relationship until he discovers that she's actually talking to tens of thousands of people at the same time. And then he ends up in The Uncanny Valley and drops out of the experience and never wants anything to do with her every weekend shows is that people and they are we will be living together. We will be working together. So we need to learn to communicate with each other and that's why we're going to have a new job. Important job called conversation designer and it's really what we do from icdi we trained and certified conversations on its to make AI assistants

more helpful and actual at scale call BC. Obviously if we all know this the modern businesses looking to automate about 85% of the conversations on their website, in the app on voice assistant in the call center everywhere where you're talking to people, do you want to automate this conversation? Some more and more companies are in a building in house team since know some of them have teams of a hundred people, some of them have 20 30, you just see this big waves, where companies are really recognizing conversation design, as an important Joel job to help

them unlock the potential of conversational, AI technology and just like you cannot. Imagine a company about engineer's today. You cannot imagine a company without conversation is on your side. Yes or no. So what is conversations on? Really really sums it up, right? If you have a conversation between an AI assistant, in the human, did two things. Stand out. One of them has an artificial brain and the other one has a human brain and it's always have their own limitations and capabilities and different triggers that they need to function. So the artificial brain,

you know, it needs to understand intent and entities in context and variables. So obviously we have natural language understanding technology that the translate natural speech into structured data allow the AI assistant to respond. But on the other hand we have, are we human? And a Gentleman wants empathy and helpful to send. Sometimes it wants a compliment and some encouragement but I still want my create language. We really need to make sure that is what we just two people if you want to have proper conversations between people on the eye, the natural language creation is to be equally

important natural, language understanding that they should all be. Equally important. I see if you have an artificial brain talk to human brain, do we need to understand technology psychology online which I want a lot of projects don't really make it from POC to production. It's because there's so much emphasis on the technology and not enough. I'm a psychology and human language and that's really what we need to change and that's what we do that. CDI for that. We see three main rules. There is a conversation designer that person really thinks about the structure of the conversation,

right. What is the Saudi us side of it? What's the best flow of information? Do we have conversational copywriters? They turn words into resonated dialogue to think about personality, to think about psychology and they really want to make sure that people have a great experience and endure all Dai trainer season of people that turn data into understanding. That's a big collector. Uterine cysts, tournament to inclusive training phrases, Implement them in Raza. Use the data to optimize it and together with AI trainers, conversation is honest and conversational copywriter. You

building a team that really allows you to ask you when Centric conversation about skill and it doesn't matter if it's for search at you want to have DC capabilities and better than your team. So what does that work? Flow? Look like we really see three main steps, when designing a R6 stats, you still with the requirements. Requirements is really, what kind of Technology are we using? What kind of conversations are we going to be having? So, these are used cases, who are we going to be having the Whisk? That's our audience are the

people that were going to be talking to and who is best to do that on our behalf, right? And that's your Bob personality or bought Persona that defines your tone of voice. I don't have a happy conversation is not moving folks on the happy flow and the Diesels conversation design. We really focus on training online with models and Andover Sue web for live agent or can be anything. Every pair of clothes Etc. So, let's talk about Persona first. This one's always quite nice. Nice little face there. This one is interesting to

so everybody know in his virtual room feasibility. But we also see a face in the building, right? We see two eyes and a mouth and this one's really cute. It's called pareidolia, right? And it's really the tendency to perceive a specific off and meaningful image in a random or a bit ambiguous visual pattern. I can people see people everywhere. And it also means that when they talk to an assistant they very quickly recognized as human and it's sort of loose themselves and that experience. So it puts a lot of responsibility on us as designers. Cuz

people forget, it's a box and this one, this work is obviously it's it's shared a lot wide for speeds and says that within 1 and 1/2 seconds, people create an image of Twitter talking to. Is it a man or woman tried to send it to hear a voice within 1 and 1/2? Second I think, is this a man or a woman? What do they look like? How could he be your Value City? Where they from Ice, how do they relate to me? So, we have an AI assistant that talkin to a million people. A day does million feet for all creating an image of Twitter. Actually talk to me. If you are a Brands and you have brands at,

you know, your brand is, your ass is a ufer, very hard to develop that and you want to protect that. Did you have a million people creating an image of a directly talking to you lose control over that France? And that's not what you want. So you want to have very carefully design, your own soda. Voice of your own personality. For your AI system is going to be in assisted, less likable and less trustworthy. Are you going to end up in that uncanny valley? Alright, then we all noticed but you know in general is very mechanical people like it if it's very human-like, people

like it as well for what it's somewhat in the middle, we're not really sure the crazy very uncanny experience and we drop out of the experience that we don't care. like the movie, Her And the reason for this is that people use a different part of the brain when they interact with something that when they interact with someone, and when your brain is confused and conflicted about what it's actually doing and what its engaging with you creating an experience that people just want to quit and it will destroy your AI assistant. So you want to create this, bod personality, give it a

backstory and give it a tone of voice. So, here's just an example, Henry is 45 was giving him a background is from adding bread. Now, lives in New York used to work in Hospitality. He's a butler now and you want to give him an entire biography. Cuz everybody on the team will then understand how to approach a writing and research problems are design work. So this is part of the requirements that you want to have to split personality as a deliverable that requirements face before you do any design work, you want to understand. Are you going to be talkin to

people when you design conversations, talk you through the simply used case of buying some sneakers, and I want to talk you through to happy conversation is on slow instead of show. You all the steps that we incorporate to create successfully. I assistance. So happy conversation. It looks like this, we take her use case that we look at the bought me some usernames that we do sample dialogue with a Wizard of Oz test, the next 2-3 ride and I'll take you through the steps so you can see for yourself. What all those words mean. So we start with a canvas that we don't do any

flowcharting or start developing stuff and Roz immediately and we actually want to mentalize the situation what we're dealing with. So we look at you now. Where is someone actually why we're having this conversation when it's rush hour and you're on the train or you just put the kids to that? It's 8. Clock you having a cup of tea at the kitchen table, those things really changed the Dynamics of our conversation. So let's fill in this Camp is for buying sneakers. All right, so we're going to see if somebody is at home on the computer. When they're reaching out to buy sneakers, maybe

their Partners in the Next Room, but not interfere with the conversation. Did not really in a rush that are excited to get it running. So what did I want to do? Don't want to be human, wants to buy cool. Sneakers want to know which ones to get the one that you are motivated by getting fit that they want to look cool but they're really worried that he might get the wrong sneakers. That's actually you know what, if I got the wrong ones and I show up at the Park and my friends laugh at me because I got the old tradition and I need better, once I don't have the right color. So whatever. So it

expects the assistant to help select the right sneakers and it's really afraid to make the wrong decisions on itself. So that's sort of the human side of the sky. But someday I assistant super powers so it can help you select sneakers and Adam to the card. It doesn't recognize people doesn't do transaction but it does know what's in stock right? And questions that we need to ask that the entities we need to extract. There are really two running golden shoe size, the price on to call away and the behavior that we promote, its really add to cart. And I'll

tell me what this means is that we sit two people back to back from each other and we going to have this conversation. So one person is going to study the canvas of The Human Side. So they're going to get into that mindset. What are going to be? All right, I want to go, I want to get sneakers cuz I'm running again. That's what I'm motivated about but I'm really insecure. I'm not really yo Savvy when it comes to Fashion. So I'm going to need some advice. Don't want to make any mistakes and today study. Lots of the other

person studies, the side of the AI system. They both get into character like improvisational fear theater. They have the conversation and the beginning it's completely Messi. Write somebody at your the last question is chaotic but because they speak out loud, they get into character. All the information is relevant for this. Conversation is going to come out, right? And it allows us to a few iterations and role-playing exercises to understand the most natural structure of the conversation, right? Then Dad said of the actual design process and allows it allows us to make it very

eccentric instead of flowcharting. So once we have these conversations, we're going to write some conversation design, fundamentals, rides. A Nexus part after the sample dialogue, we want to write some fundamentals and conversation designed so that we can validate it to Wizard of Oz test. So let's look at some of these, okay? You want to buy some sneakers. Do you know which one? Okay. It's what we call Duck knowledge. That's right. And it means that, you know we're just giving you the heads-up that work that we've heard you very important invoice. Like we know who's heard

you were not communicating any value but we're here. Don't got to add an implicit confirmation. You want to buy sneakers rights to buy repeating, what the user said do using. Now knows that we understood him and that's how I saved up whatever. We're going to say next is going to be relevant for them or I'd say. That's why these confirmations are incredibly important. OK, one of my sneakers, do you know which wants? That's the problem. I think of trump tells the user. Okay, now it's your turn to speak again rice. It's a very clear check. Now I'm Trump and Putin gay

Tri-Cities. Our conversation is on Sunday mantels for this use case. We would have a bunch of these messages to get through the whole thing. Announcements confirmation prompts. So we could now test the entire conversation. I would do that with a Blizzard of Ozz, testing. Wizard of Oz is really, we stick to our script and people can speak freely right away, just make a speak freely. We stick to the script that we discover, what about 5 to 10 tries, what makes sense, and what doesn't? And in our case let's say that we discover that people simply on ready to buy it, right? We shove we

try to shut them sneakers down the throat, but they're not ready yet. So we have some issues. There's a few flag on the play. The things that we need to improve. So what we do that, if we go to the extra tree right here tonight. So we have done our set. We've done Arkansas and we've done a sample dialogue. We've created our fundamentals, we validated it. Now we need to apply some Behavior to sign. And what we do that is look to BJ Fogg his behavior model for the extra 3, right. And it pretty much means that we can prom desired Behavior by increasing motivation. Show me and I'm not going

to go into great detail about this but every time you wanted designed for specific behavior you can look at motivation ability, a certain prompts. I said he's just going to copy writing techniques that you can apply when you designed this conversation. So the motivation that we're going to use social proof, anticipatory, enthusiasm and ability. We can use some Choice architecture and see if we can improve this. One. Message that we just wrote. Okay, you want to buy sneakers, do you know which ones? Let's at anticipatory enthusiasm. Okay, we go to help. You find the right

sneakers. Does that sound good. So now I'm already putting damage and someone's mind that they're actually going to have the right sneakers, price, or taking away. Some of the anxiety that they have. Let's see if we could do more than expectations management, okay, to help you find the right sneakers. I'm going to ask you three simple questions. Does that sound good? What's the number to ADI? Expectation management that were taken away a lot of stress with somebody reaches out and we tell him exactly what's going to happen. It takes away stress and they will actually continue to come

to increase motivation to help you find a ride sneakers. I'm going to ask you three simple questions for most people is only takes a minute. Does that sound good? What's the number of Planet Fitness in the conversational? Copywriter to the conversation designer? It's one of the fundamental structure. Now, this is a combination of coffee, right? That is applying Behavior design in Psychology increase our success rate, but let's see if we can actually do more. Let's say we're doing a chat box and we can use some buttons. What can we do? 10, I can

apply Choice architecture. Okay, to help you find a Rite sneakers. I'm going to ask you three simple questions for most people is only takes a minute. Does that sound good? Yes, no, tell me more. This is how Choice architecture works, right? If I present more positive options, the odds of someone selecting positive options, greatly increase, right? But maybe I want to find some personality. Let's say, I am a sports bra. And I have a pie bought for so nice, designs around Sports, retail price. And I'm just as excited about running as you are. Let's see what we can do that.

Okay? To help you find the right sneakers, I'm going to run you through three simple questions. For most people that only takes a minute. Ready, set, go then, go. Now. Let's do this, right? These are all the things that we apply during the extra dree rides. Is this the conversational copyrighted that? Really takes it to the next level. And once we've done. That's when we go to details combination is I-5. So, we can trust, we've done our role playing. We've done to The Wizard of Oz tests. We've done the extras rewrite to really figure out what conversation, we

need to design that you usually get sign off from your stakeholders and get a little stamp and then we move it to details conversation that I'm alright. So we're going to start collecting. Catherine, Susan, and training to Model. A lot of times what you do during The Wizard of Oz test. Now let's say you have 10 people interact with your assistant, whatever they say heart rate training faces as well, right? Cuz they're really in the context of the conversation rather than someone that did the same use cases in your life chat. For example, I'm going to start training a Model, A

start implementing it and we're going to be thinking about the long tail, right. When do we hand it over to an agent or to a website? We really want to have 80% of people. Go through 20% of the conversation last night and that's really know our high-value use cases. I think of it this way right there, restaurants and four people want a table at 8 then the chat but should be able to do it if they're 13 and two of them are in a wheelchair and three of them were vegan and two of them are gluten-free. They probably should just give us a call and that's fine. We don't have the chat. Doesn't

have to solve all those Let's just focus on 80% of people and make sure that they go to 20% the combination to ask people say, or what if we think we do. But turns out that we don't, what if there is a task, do your people just start talking altogether? How do we win it back, right? So that's just what you do during details conversation tonight. They start implementing. You start deploying. I know you're stuck optimizing. Obviously, to your Analytics. So this is really

one workflow that we see, conversational design teams, use around the world, that's pretty successful so far. And he has, obviously, they come from business data, science and analytics. We run into Happy combination to sign. Then stakeholders Here, sign off. And then we bring them to details conversation design. So can I roll my Academy here? You see all the different things that you can learn as a conversational team but I'd say hey see some of the things that aren't too happy conversation design. These are conversations on but there's also fundamentals that

you just need to start thinking about us a design. Team turn-taking pump for bosset ETA, parade. Jenga techniques, what are you going to do with all the error handling and particularly increasing motivation motivation? It's not necessarily to always try seals. All right, it's not to always sell someone a product. It's also in customer service when we're dealing with very complicated issues and it's just a long conversation, I can increase motivation in a service pack in a service journey, to make sure people get to the end of it,

sits around increasing motivation and then around bought personality and a, how do you write you This is no content Creed Easter eggs at cetera, there's a lot of content, a lot of things to learn and then around a I trained specifically. And I think that is going to fit in very well with the Raza Krause. It it's really too serious, you know, training an AI building it. You know what? The trainee phrases sourcing down, cleaning them up implementing down, Lincolnwood conditions and to see conditions. There's so much to learn and then improving

the AI assistants and we really see. I think that's one of the key challenges that a lot of companies face right now, there's the engineers and then there's the design. And the AI trainer is often someone that's kind of sits between those developers and designers near the bridge between the two. So all of the content that you see here is 40, a high trainers that are going to really help unlock the potential of As a conversational AI technology. Therefore were incredibly proud and happy to officially teamed up with fries are now so

the workshop. Now, they've been doing, you cannot follow it out on our website, you was going to come and he's on his suit, of course, this La Raza. And then follow that, amazing workshop and and learn about the three technology. That's it. For me. If you want to reach out to connect with me, I'm pretty easy to find.

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