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Startup School Winter 2020
January 20, 2020, Online, USA
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Gustaf Alströmer - Growth for Startups
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About the talk

YC Partner and growth expert Gustaf Alströmer talks about how to measure product market fit, how to decide on a growth channel, metrics that lie about PMF and other mechanics of growth for startups.

Transcript and lecture slides here: https://www.ycombinator.com/library/6k-growth-for-startups

This lecture is part of YC's Startup School, a free online program and global community of founders. Register and join the community at https://www.startupschool.org/

Timestamps

00:00 Introduction

1:36 Do things that don't scale

3:55 Case study: Airbnb

8:33 Product-market fit

16:30 Growth channels and tactics

18:29 Conversion rate optimization

21:37 Growth channels to explore

25:46 Referrals & virality

28:16 Paid growth

30:20 Search Engine Optimizaion (SEO)

33:12 A/B Testing

37:45 Conclusion

00:00 Intro

01:36 Do things that don't scale

03:55 Case study: Airbnb

08:33 Product-market fit

16:30 Growth channels and tactics

18:29 Conversion rate optimization

21:37 Growth channels to explore

25:46 Referrals & virality

28:16 Paid growth

30:20 Search engine optimization (SEO)

33:12 A/B Testing

37:45 Conclusion

About speaker

Gustaf Alströmer
Partner at Y Combinator

Gustaf Alstromer spent 4.5 years at Airbnb where he worked as a Product Lead on the Growth team, a team he helped start in 2012. Prior to Airbnb, Gustaf was Head of Growth at Voxer, and before that, he was CEO & co-founder of Heysan, which was part of the YC W07 batch.

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My name is cuz I'm going to get a truck on growth for startups. This is going to be for some of you guys not to be relevant right now. Cuz you might not not launched and thinking too much about growth. We haven't launched isn't that relevant, but for those of you that launched this is hopefully going to be good. So I'm going to cover three different things today. First. I'm going to talk about stock market fit and retention. The reason of that relates to growth so much is because working on growth. Be before you have properly fit and good retention is not a good idea. The second thing I

talked about it, the girl with the channels and tactics, these things definitely apply after you have launched an often. After you have a good part of my calf it you found something to do before they want and anyways Skillet up to the the larger world. And lastly, I want to talk about how you make decisions. When you have several people on your team. You want to start redoing things and you're not really sure exactly if you making all the things I apply when you're little bigger. So my background, I learned most of these things and we talked about Air B&B. I worked on the crew. Team for almost

five years from where we are to people. Until I work for an 100 people on that team. This is the team back in 2015. Most of what lessons? I'll talk to you today. I think I learned there. Most of you are going to be somewhere on this line. Most startups don't have black market fit. Founders tell themselves that they do and they try to come as himself that this is working. But the truth is for most companies is not working. So that means you're going to be somewhere on this line. People also have this idea that if I launch my product, it will work somehow is going to work. If I just tell the

world that I am a can is not now, they're not unfortunately that's not the case. Their world is a really busy place and there isn't really lots of people waiting for you to launch a product. They're not standing there and they're not going to try it. The moment. You launched it. That is unfortunately not the truth. And for many people have never thought of these questions before. How do I reach the world? Does that actually comes as a surprise? People didn't used to working in big companies or this is not a problem. Keeping me used to going to school or other areas. What is just not

a problem in this case when you're launching a startup. It's all down to you. And it's all it is going to be a problem in the very early days. There's a great article. The recommend for you guys to read on this. This is called doing things that don't scale. Paul G. It wrote that 6 years ago. It is about the early days of the Airbnb story and the thing that's really important about this is Acid found her. You need to keep two different skill sets in mind as your company grow in the beginning of your company. You going to do a lot of things that don't feel right at the end when they don't feel

natural to you, cuz not the kind of thing that you learned a job store in school is social, like the most kind of Physical real things that you have to do that. You aren't going to be available later on, but later on, when is the company grows bigger you going to be doing a lot of things that I are things that relate directly to software company. So these are choosing to scale, says he got to keep in mind the same time and I see we have this thing where, where we tell the company said, you just launched you got to do things. I don't scale, we got lots of these, MVA is the ghost went

to school and said, well, this idea of not stale standing outside of the store or sitting in this in this elevator to sell people. Something that's certainly isn't scale, correct? That it's not scale. But that is what everyone needs to start. And if you went to school and you learned they should only work on things. They really scale. You going to have to learn that skill because when you start your company the most important thing is going to do things that don't suck a dick. A good idea. This is the early days of Airbnb. So this is sometimes in 2009. They were just a few people.

The article I mentioned earlier doing things that don't still tells the story of the first year too. Baby be when the founders came to Y, see they have spent almost a year trying to get empty out the ground. It didn't really work. This was the first version of the Airbnb website ever been in breakfast.com. In fact, the website itself didn't really speak to what the what the what the company does. It was started as a web sites to offer air mattresses to people that visited design conferences, and they had to navigate the way to find the place where BB is today. What are me join? I see

the first question that got from Paul Graham was who are your users and at the time this site look something like this you clicked on a listing and you had three different piece of information. You had a photo of the other host. You have one photo in this case of the building from the outside and then you have one map where that place was now at the time, the only comparison to what a sight like this would look like. We'll be Craigslist. So crisis wasn't a lot better than this at least admit that area, but it wasn't something that

would make everybody take off. They didn't really have in the product, will make every take off the things that were missing is, is this a good listening. How does this listing Ashley? Look like, can I trust the host loss of things that were missing in that really product and how do you learn that? The way that learned that is they went and talked to the house on their first weekend? C program told the funds Bambi. You guys go to meet your host for you host. Most of our hosts are New York. We don't have that many, but most of them are New York, the food in New York Undercover, not on a

cover. They claim to be hired photographers for Airbnb, a bed, and breakfast. So when I met with all the hosts, they said when it come by your home and take photos then say they were the founders of that made the company's. How much smaller they came in the house. And while one of the founders were taking the photos of the listings to make this look a lot better. The other Founders sat down with a hose and ask them questions about how what, what are the challenges you have in the product? Like, what are the things are not working? Can you show me how you use the product? And by doing that

they got, for the first time to meet the people that were the customers with their really haven't done before? And they got to see how they use their products. That's doing things. I don't scale and that is nothing that scares. You can't go and fly to me every single one of customers, but when you start doing that, you will learn things that you can't learn signal from the computer. So they learn that. Does payouts things in the world record, this, there's a big you I bought on this page or didn't work on the, on the Internet Explorer. Well, all these things that you can't learn sitting in

front of computer. They went back to San Francisco and they sent an email to the morning afternoon and said all the photos. We took of your house. They're not up on ever having a breakfast. Calm. And by the way, we fixed half of the bugs that you emailed us about or we fix the bug that you tell us about yesterday that made the host. Love them. And those hose became the reason that I'm be eventually took off like doing things that don't scale fixing the product. Making the Trek work for the early host which became the backbone. So there are the dates

of Ivan B. The lesson here is that the founders are the ones who make stars take off. I found it. You guys are the ones that they make stars. Take off, you going to have to do on the conventional things, going to have to do things that don't feel, right? Certainly going to do things that you didn't learn in in business school and just going to do the things that are needed and this is basically what the YC batch is about. When someone joins me to see, we're going to be like you going to lunch because that's the most important that you do it. Now, once it launches like, how

do I get users? Like you got to figure out how to do it and is different. Every company from another company. That means sales for other companies. That means doing things that don't scale. Typically people start with her friends and their friends are friends and then hopefully you get one step further. The people that are now, not your friends are friends, and they going to give you a true opinion by a company. Those other people are going to have to reach early on. It doesn't really start would like a lingerie website. Put up Google ads or lost my website and somehow it's being

discovered. That's not how companies get started. So they end up much later, but that's not how to get started. There's only one way to grow when you're really small and that is doing things. I don't get. All right, next topic. I'm going to talk about the stock market fit. This is a terminology that probably most of you have heard of this is a thing that's been hard to measure or hard for people to say, do I have problem? I can fit or not. A lot of people like to tell them, self them, that they do have black. Like I said, it's this thing that we throw around as a way to say. My product is

great. So now I have to pack my can fit. I would argue that there's some ways you can measure Prime. I can fit them. Anyway, so you can't. So let's talk about the one thing that I think it's the best way to do that. I think that the best way to figure out if I can fit this is used a unbiased data to understand it. If you're basically have made something people want The two ways that you got when I start that, the first way is a try to figure out what is the metric. The data point that represents the value of your company. That's the first thing I do. The second thing I do is try to figure

out how often should I really be doing that? Dre sample might be start school. The metric here is like are people showing up to that video? Talk to start school. How often is that? It's every week, right? That's pretty easy. But most companies can be defined as academic sample. So Airbnb, what is the symmetric represents the value? Will it say bookings in the space? Not the searches searches? Not that it's going to be The Bookies in the state. When I travel, I be, I've experienced about you about how often do people do. This will travel is

actually mostly an annual thing. You don't really travel every month. Most people don't do it when we were measuring retention at every World annual. I look at Instagram. What's the expected? Use. Give Miss Pam? It's basically just coming back to Instagram. Most people are not expected to post photos every day. It's just going to be coming back to Instagram and viewing photo. That's what most people do. And that's fine. That's actually what they want. They want. Somebody was supposed to or sometimes but most of time just coming back if it's good enough. How often probably every day. I

think it would be any company Gaston, Gaston, the most valuable thing that they do for the customers. Is that run? Payroll on the pay out money to employees, that are that, are that the employees of customers customers customers? So, how often do you do a little depends? Probably every bi-weekly or monthly and by measuring these two things, how many people am I running payroll? And are they continually running payroll at day? That's the best way to figure out if people enjoy using. Gus know, if they going to switch to some other people for butter. And finally lift you might want to think

it's rides here. The rides is the best metric are such a writers. Like the people that are taking the rides, are the ones that matter because it's the individuals that we want to measure here. And we not tell you want to make sure that the action that they take and that's a probably weekly monthly. So now we have those companies. Let's put my grass one piece on the grass is going to be the metric and the other one's going to be the time. When do so, every single time. When do we can put some percentage of us people on the graph example on week's arrow

in the case of lift, you light, a hundred percent drivers. So what I, what do I mean by that? I basically mean that if I had a hunt like this at ten Riders this week, the road with lift, they will be calculated on the week's Arrow. Now how many of the riders that I had last week are now traveling with lift this week. That is your week. Not one number and the week to number and it between a now why is this important? Because we're trying to measure repeat usage, repeat. Usage is the bat best. Most unbiased way to figure out. If someone is like in your product, it's more true

than what they tell you. They might tell you things. But what they do is going to be the most important thing. So most companies going to be defined as way even if you have it be to become truck company that do annual contracts measuring say, what do people do in my product to be a really good way on like this regular basis. Even if I pay for Gaston on an annual basis. They don't do measuring the activity. Are you using just do on a regular basis by weekly? Or monthly is is the way to figure out a few blocks using the product? The most of the IDS. Even you beat it be or consumers, could

be plotting on this line. My wife is important. Well, if you ever going to raise money, this is a grasp. Any buses. Going to ask for how much retention do you have? Like, our people actually repetitively using your product? There was nothing there. Really curious about other metrics that you might have that, don't matter. This is a sign of a bad product. Basically every single week after I saw using this product, fewer and fewer and fewer people continue to come back as a product. So, this craft can be plotted and basically show but this wasn't a good product. This summer is a good

product every week, eventually finds out the people that stopped in the park. Stop stop using the product. And eventually hear week, 8 9 10. We have a line of people to continue to talk every single week. That means that they are retained. They have, you have problem. I can fit for those two uses for this product. So I'm not going to have asked these questions but two companies that I would already have problem. Like I said, the first one here has 30% after 2 months and 21% have 20 months is pretty good. So you can a 50 users 21 months later. What kind of months later?

Doordash have a monthly pension of 20%, two years later. You're not there. There's nothing can be more like a BB company, 80% retention after one month, and then 30 minute after 60 months, is really good. This is really a product. Very sticky people like this talking to, don't stop using it. Some attention is the best way to measure Park. When you said, let's talk about specific thing. You might want to let that some people think is a better way. I get that. They're not waste by trippie, Redd's net promoter score. Why is it not good?

Or you can just Google the best price and best countries in the world. They all have that promoted score like the iPhone Apple all in her bag. And if a horse doesn't necessarily correlate with good products, correlates with the sections of companies, surveys problem with surveys, is they are going to be nice. If you ask your users, you're going to have some level of bias. There are good ways to use service to improve your products, but it's not going to be the best way to figure out this metric is one cool question. You can ask user, which is how would you feel if you no longer use this

product. Sometimes this works, we can give you an idea but I wouldn't do it. Instead of attention. I was always try to find a way to measure attention or some bad weather around is like evidence for your pockets. Working registered, users really bad. That's not say anything about repeat usage or if they like you or not visitors. Also bad does not say anything about whether you're probably going to be valuable conversion rate. We have this conversion rate of visitors to something else. Well, that doesn't really say much cuz you don't know what

people you're converting. You don't know who they are. So this is not say much about talk much either. And finally something, that should be a paid product. You're giving away. Free is not a good sign. If I'm going to feel like you want to figure out if you were willing to pay for it because price if someone says I love this, if it's free, but if it costs money and use it, that's pretty bad like them. They're not going to work out for you. So you want to make sure that the people that are doing something like this on this grass. If they suspect that you pay for the practice should be paying

for. All right. Next action and tactics, dissection really applies. If you have probably said, if you if most of the people to come to your product, go down the drain right away and they never come back the 2nd of the matter. Like, why would you work and trying to get more people to product that even if no one is using it back. Anyway, if most people just turning and like it's right ones and then I can come back like don't work at the stuff. Wait, with a step until you have some people. They care about your product. You can try to use some of these channels to

reach those people specifically this really too. Way, so you can grow at scale. So when I looked at that team that she saw the photo of there, going to be a team. They worked on two things that either worth. I want to call product growth or conversion rate optimization. What this means is, you have typically Engineers designers data scientist product managers. Working on improving specific parts of your product to get more people through. That tunnel is a good example and give you some examples, but that's basically why defined as the first section, most of those people that photo. Or in

this category. They were engineers designers Park managers and his mind has the second group is going to call Groth channels. What channels is basically Platforms in the world that people tend to discover products on me, give you some specific examples. Google huge platform for you. Possibly discovered anything that you want to use. That is a rare behavior in life. Google. That's what you do insurance. I forgot the insurance. Google find a doctor Google. Everything you do rarely is going to be Google, which means loss of products are being

discovered on Google girl channels. Like Google is extremely important, one for many companies and other one, we might be Facebook, Instagram advertising, on Facebook, and Instagram is critical to company's growth. These days. What I mean by grow channel, that means basically other platforms, but your website or app. Let's talk about commercial right now. I'm up my station. What does it mean? Every single step of your product experience is funnel. The like their attention Kerr can be measured, you can have a metric and I think it think Elia talked about this earlier. I

stopped school school talk when they build funnels. If you put a message on every single page in your product, you will know what percent of people to make it from the first page. Say the homepage to the booking page, in the case of every be weak, all the homepage P1, the search results page P2, and then the booking page, and that missing page P3, and then the book and page with P for four pages, that was in Tyre website. Now, what's the Funnel Vision people make it from P1 to P4? Percent not that many 1% 2%, Most people don't make it that far. Your job

is to figure out how many people make it that far? Why are they dropping off? What can I do to increase the number? That's basically multiple teams or multiple people act start at the door, those things. Every single step in. My phone's going to have some kind of drop up for some reason. They might be that the content on the page is not suited for them, Atlanta Atlanta Raven, be all the contents speaks to Millennials have family does not not good content. I land on some other website, content doesn't speak to me cuz I'm not there that the right customer. That's one example of a drop of. You can

fix with constant constant changing the content and Autumn might be allowed on the website. It doesn't work cuz in the store is not optimized for that is not on my phone that you got to drop off. You got to take that to the loss of different reasons. We want to drop off some specific things that people tend to work on when they work on commercial with child molestation International station, if your website or your practice International translating it, the product is really a good idea. We saw the MB I've seen on Facebook, I've seen the many other companies for translation is, is is

really, really important occasion. Most part. Have some flow where you're signing up. Now that flow probably your products to have some kind of a Temptation flow. That's all I was very Critical in the use of our kind of vulnerable in that case cuz they don't really have time for too much friction. So it is not working. Perfect. That might just go to the next website. So make sure the authentication for works really well, look at the best website in the world. Look at Pinterest. Look at every beat. Look at some of the size. They have teams optimizing these beasts Lowe's copy what

they do. They're probably figure it out. There's been a lot of time off my Ting, uhm boarding. This is a huge effort, specifically for products and need a lot of involvement from the users to be able to become active users said a lot of questions. You might want to ask early on in a new product demoy, an Envoy to use her by asking them questions to make experience better. The more active in the motor chain, they will be. So I'm warning the loss of things you can do. I finally purchased conversion when you're about to purchase a lot of things around urgency and scarcity and just

user flow in you. I all of these things matters and that's another great example for showing up with my station channels. So I don't get here until you have some good sense of that. This is something you'd want. First one. Like I said earlier, if this is a rare Behavior, most new ideas are a behaviors are there because they don't exist yet or because they're not something you do every day. We tend to go to Google to learn about things. We don't do very often. So that's why, if that is the kind of fact that you have being on. Google is going to be really important

to be out on Google. If they're paid marketing to see him or to SEO. S, a s s, that's your product, or the people, or to share your product through word-of-mouth. So, some products are viral his nature to sound, really exciting to talk about Lyft and Uber, or never be our samples of those. If that's the case you want to make sure you folks in Valatie and referrals. What does that mean? Is he building in? She a product of flow that friends can tell other friends about the product? Referrals is a way that you can do that by giving some kind

of financial incentive. Does the project better, if you have more users, listen to the marketplaces. That is specifically to for anything that social, so, I can think of a LinkedIn or Airbnb, LinkedIn or Facebook? But having more people on the prize going, to make it better supposed to be really important for you to get more people. And those people on your side is going to be the one who's doing it. You want to Say Goodbye, Earl Loop. In the first thing, they ask you is a Mite more people. That's because your experience get better there. More people on LinkedIn now. Many products. Do you

work this way? And this can be perfected and they want to really succeed in the world. All of them are the ones that really nail this down to figure out this really well. Many people to make social not underestimate importance going to be to get to get your friends on that product. If you can make a list of all the customers, even if Alice is a hundred thousand or five hundred thousand, as long as it's not mainstreaming out, they'll be in the tens of millions. It probably to do sales to make that list. You start counting those people. Why make it any more complicated. Why don't you reach

the world for people? If they're only a few people. Do you really want to reach? So most companies NYC these days by asking this question. Can you make a list of the customers, make a list? Of those companies are trying to sell to these people make a list, email, addresses phone number. Try to figure out how to reach them to start, making a list. Don't make it Complicated by going out. In a in a world that most people aren't going to be relevant for for your product. And finally, this is a channel that now, Des is bigger than it ever has been and more important than

ever happen, which is if you look at how the entire world that starts to change the last 10 years, more and more than returning more money and are therefore getting with call up higher high, LTV High lifetime value, like any higher lifetime value, you are an able and ability to buy paid out of typing. You don't have people paying for products. Are you making money from your product? Should not be think I'm on on, on, on my marketing. Not, a truth. Is that most companies these days are charging for the products. They are making money from the product and therefore, they spend money on the

market. If that's true for you. Just give me an extremely powerful channel. The biggest mistakes Founders made is to start working out of my marketing when they don't have people paying for the product. Hersman said you probably didn't think of most really big. Companies didn't use all those channels that use one or two channels. I think of a TripAdvisor. How is TripAdvisor big? I see you guys having something on Google line on TripAdvisor. And that's how you found. This website. Most companies have how to set up where there's going to be one or two channels that

really matters. Everything a Pinterest SEO, is there. The real way happens is going to type something on Google that or the excessive interest for that. You know, I know. I'm just bored. So they acquire new users. Popeye I'm going to space give some specific at tactical advice on some of these counts. The first one to talk about. It's a frozen morality. So referrals is what am I? What am I strong driving? I'll get product than referrals is going to be one way that you can amplify That Word of Mouth. How do I Define referrals Financial incentive to tell your friends

about the product? That's my definition. This is the NBA referral product. You gave someone $40 just a baby when they do. I get $20. Pretty simple. Concept. I'm on the west side and on the mobile app. Now that such a complicated, they might think his entire product funnel for this multiple sets and that's all, I'm not going to go into detail here. But if you think I've ever froze, product is not just as simple as throwing that offer out. It's probably wanting a very beginning. But once you have our faults, are you want to start masturbating each of these steps?

Like, what is that? Referral offer? I need to go to that page? How many people send invites tell me about being clicked on, how many of those people sign out from those invites? How many of those people that sign up and up booking each one of those steps is that in this model? So I got one specific, stop, the referral to email invite. So we would spend a lot of time off to my son, this this this. Because there were lots of people getting their referrals. Email. Invite a different beat. So what are the things you can optimize on a referral invite email first? Who's the sender of the

email? If it's just every be I probably would not have never heard of them before. The first time. I got this email, if it's Gustav. Listen to email and I sent you my friend, I ever heard of me. That's a reason to open the email people having to email. Clearvalue. What is this email about? Many emotions start with text, don't start with tech how to clear value profit? The top. Why should I care about this email? In this case is extremely simple. Gustav sent you $40 for your first trip. That sounds good. What is that about? When do I have to care about this by this date

in the next month? So I can't just leave it. Your mother never open again. I have to do it right now. What do I have to do here while I could stand up? Which is that I'm Define things? You can do sometime in the future or I can do what we did. Here was accept my invitation that sounds more exclusive sounds like something that is just for me. It doesn't sound like something I can do anytime in the future, and finally hear some social proof from this email. This is me. Isla de San Francisco. Can reveal that. Have been a member of MBS in 2009 and we can reveal that as well.

I'll talk about Pedro's each of the section referrals, Pedro, Theo could be a presentation on his own. So it's impossible for me to go into deep details on this. But if you're determined that you have Prime Beef in, you want to go on these channels. And this is the channel you want to. You want to go deep on, you going to have to go really deep on it, because he's being really good. At one of these channels require a lot of work. So there's a lost my stuff at online about how to get really good at one of these channels. It doesn't really make sense to get good at all of them. As most of you

want really need all them at the. Number one lesson in Pay growth. I ate all my marketing is to not do it. If you unless you have Revenue This is the most common mistake, the founders make it this time. I start buying ads for products and I'll never be able to pay them back. Don't do that. The next thing you went to figure out it was was called, CAC customer acquisition cost. How much does it cost to acquire a new pain? When your valuable customer has given you value value back into us like Google and Facebook have a very clear system for how they calculate this. I want you to

run a still start telling you what the cost is going to be going to be that your Revenue projected revenue from this user is going to have to be higher than the cat hide on the cough personable. Otherwise, you can't do this. So how do you know? This is a common question, get early on and paid marketing. Well, it seems like an eight months. It will be higher but not in the first month, but you can't take all your money and spend on something that you have. No clear. Certainly obvious going to happen in the future. So you going to have to either, wait eight months or you going to look for

early indicators that your hypothesis about the valley is going to be stronger. Don't wait a month, just have a much lower felt like a much lower Target on what your taxes going to be. Maybe one month to month 3-months. First first transaction? Something like that. That's much better. We do it. The main channels for All American these days is going to be Google Facebook, Instagram, to my shed, search engine optimization. This is changed a lot in the last couple of years is a very competitive. And what changed is that used to be millions of websites to each would rank

for tens of millions of keywords. I've changed is that the really big companies, so, I can get her getting really good at drinking for all those keywords. So, I Pinterest or a, TripAdvisor my rank for every single tablet. See what he can imagine. That's hard for small companies. What that means that if you were going to rely on search engine, optimization to grow, you going to have to be as good as a Pinterest or where to buy through, eventually not right away, but eventually, because it's so competitive to win in this grant, like large role as CEO. When you get started, you can

think of this way, as he always says, it's a zero-sum game you competing against others and we can do an SEO, is going to be a matter what you come back Brothers. The second thing is that the keywords that people search for changing constantly to view building something new. I say ASMR, I think we'll see a thing that came up recently lost a combined able to rank for that cousin Nikki worth their website built 10 years ago. The right for that cuz the thing didn't exist. Alright, let's talk about my co-workers. In this knowledge, aside. This is there and be search results page. This is what

you and me. See when we go to the MB is what you will see. It will just be text, so he'll be good as you do. What you need to understand what text am, I showing to Google, so good with him, staying with my place about who we can't understand what you say is about. It's not going to make it. What are the two main levers precio? The first one is going to be things. I do on my page. So for example, What's the title of the page? Can Google? Read the the page, the page throwers? What specific page am? I see? What am I trying to rank my page? 40 start with the key words, do some research and see

what are people searching for? How many people searching for ASMR in in, in your eyes as per month. For that key word for build a website is trying to rank for the keyboard, start in that, that start with Google. Don't start with you. You don't know exactly, we go searching for it going to start doing some research. The second thing is something you can't do that much about which is called off-page optimization or domain Authority or something like that was basically means how valuable does Google perceive your website to be in the grand scheme of all websites and the more inbound links to

get from press, the moorlands to get from all kinds of people. Better also with or like how high Authority the more valuable you are. So we'll be in there in the eyes of Google which means it will rank is higher on sound like he was you trying to Rank 4 because you will compare you to other website and see if they seem more or less authoritative going to need us here, but it's basically like it will work. If you can Google pay track and go to the Wikipedia article on page explains or like high-level how Google works fine section. I'm going to go to this one will faster. Most of you don't have

to smoke. So maybe testing at all. It won't matter for a long time. It is a great decision and making two later on. Perfect situation to start 10 to get into. I want to launch a new homepage. I want to watch a new design I did and the numbers went down. What happened to really hard problem to launch something new and Central like just look at that. The message all the time. Don't do that. There's a better way before you get into the station. To figure out is a b s. Something I want to do. The best way to do that is to go to Google and type in a b, testing

calculator, think of the metrics that you're trying to change her so I can visitors to van conversion metric, put them into the first thing you see on Google. And I'll tell you whether it's going to be doing most of it won't be working for quite a while. So it hurts example, I trying to give you on the website. I want to ship a new experiments that were new design of the homepage. So let's ship it to Mexico on a map. Where am I going down? By the way, like I don't know if the web said I should cost that are not the only way for me to know if this new design actually change the metric is if

I had an alternative alternate side of History, Pikachu's, two different parallel, universes, same time, one with a new design and one with the oldest line, behind. I can tell exactly what happened. That's the definition of existing you basically have two different parallel, universes of the thing, you ship the same time. You measured the metrics that matter to you. The reason this is so powerful. He helps you make a decision that scale. What ends up happening at Founders, when they get five or ten people in the company and the launch a new design, and they arguing about what cost a thing

to go up and go down. The only way to really know, is it run maybe test to figure out? What is the metric? Say about what it would happen. This is hard to internalize because most people think of the South Arts as good price for a good price takers. So it is it is it going to be how many piercings that you guys have good product and things that she has I guess I found it. You have you should have good parking space. All right, Lucy the second they are. All right, so I'm going to get your samples. So a day, maybe we launched a new sharing sheet for

that mobile app. And this was the old version which was the the nature should do. You see you? And I was hooked on chair and then you see my sharing options and the more option post experiments look native. So the question was, which one is better. Well, we don't really know. So we launch an AP test. We watched both of them at the same time for different users. The goal. Here was a master number of shares. So alright how many hairs think that the control was better? How many people think that this experiment is better? Let me go follow.

No difference. Santa coming. Is about 40% better for us supposed to be this is Jamaican group that we would have made a great decision. Next one. Should we have a sign-up wall or not in the app that these are not necessarily learn as you can apply to Cumby's right away, but it was an important decision for us to determine. So do we have people just open them be out and go straight to the app? Or should we have an experiment that you can click out an exile, the SonicWALL, or should we have a son of wall? That is at a wall that you can't. I'm over have to

sign up. Otherwise. You can you say a b up? Which one is better? I'm here think that the control knows on a ball. Better for your hands. How many people saw that? The experiment will you can X out and then sign up was better? I never thought that just like this wall. You can climb over, who's better. I just use my people fight, sometimes a lot better. We got 2.6% looking from IOS by making people sign up to a SonicWall. And why is that what we knew something about them? So we can send, you can show them more person, my stuff. And

when they were about to book, we already have them sign up. So then have to at the time of booking, go through the motions of signing up, doing to learn. Why cost this whole point is basically, when you get big enough, we trying to grope you have these decisions about should I launch this thing or not? This is a really good way to do it practitioner really hard so you can take up to two to make them. It's a good way. Most of you won't have to worry about this for a while, so don't worry about it. Chris assembly of my talk today. Most of you need to do things. I don't feel you are not at the

place where you can think about Real gross, things that gross teams. Do you have to unlearn the things? You're learning a big companies or an MBA programs and just do things? I don't steal. Secondly, you want to measure your attention to understand if you have product Market fit there, other ways to. But in my opinion and third, you want to build a culture culture, experimentation, you want to use data and not have the loudest voice in your room to side with the best position is for you on Tuesday nights. Permutation to decide. What is the best position, doesn't matter right now, but

it will not at some point. Thank you.

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