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SigOpt Summit 2021
November 16, 2021, Online
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Better Glass Design with Multi-Objective Bayesian Optimization
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About the talk

Paul Leu, Associate Professor in the Laboratory for Advanced Materials (LAMP) at the University of Pittsburgh, discusses his experience collaborating with the SigOpt team to accelerate the development of new fabrication strategies for glass to improve its performance in key properties, such as reducing haze or reflectance.

Many modern consumer electronic devices such as smartphones and tablets require the use of specialized glass or plastic materials to protect the device’s delicate display, minimize haze, and resist substances like dirt, water, and grease. Historically, nanostructured surface research is slow and fragmented due to the use of trial-and-error design methods. Nanostructured surface experiments require the precise selection of various fabrication parameters, such as the flow rate of various gases, ion etching time, chamber pressure, and more. Numerical simulations exist, but can be slow and inaccurate in the most useful circumstances. Moreover, the fabrication process is time consuming: one fabrication in one of our experimental settings requires 16 hours of chemical vapor deposition.

How can we efficiently search for the desired fabrication parameters and, in the process, speed up nanostructured surface research? The answer is multiobjective Bayesian optimization. Bio-inspiration and advances in micro-/nanomanufacturing processes have enabled the design and fabrication of micro-/nanostructures to create a variety of functionalities. In this talk, Paul discusses his research group’s recent progress in the creation of multi-functional glass using multi-objective Bayesian optimization.

About speaker

Paul Leu
Associate Professor at University of Pittsburgh

Prof. Paul Leu is an Associate Professor and the BP America Faculty Fellow in the Industrial Engineering Department at the University of Pittsburgh. His research group the Laboratory for Advanced Materials at Pittsburgh (LAMP) focuses on functional materials which have included functionalities such as antireflection, light trapping, and haze control in plasmonics, transparent electrodes, and solar cells. Recently, he has been integrating simulation and experimental methodologies with machine learning for materials discovery. He has been recipient of the Oak Ridge Associated University Powe Junior Faculty Enhancement Award, UPS Minority Advancement Award, and the NSF CAREER Award. His research has been showcased in Scientific American Frontiers, Pittsburgh NPR, and Pittsburgh Magazine.

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Call everyone. This is Doctor Paul Lu, from University of Pittsburgh. Happy be able to speak at the summit. I want to talk to you about Marquis of Jessica's optimization. A particular talking about optoelectronics class is such a solar modules smartphone, a lot of different types of optoelectronics devices. Turns of the important properties of glass will be discussing a little bit about how we can draw from a violent separation, different structures found in nature

and create properties that are important for glass if it's high transparency, there like skating rink scattering properties and water and liquid repellency. We'll talk about how these relate to a different types of functionalities that are important things, such as cleaning or stain resistant and all these properties. And functionalities together are important for these types of applications that I just mentioned. Glass the most important properties or related to how

light does a and see how, what fraction of photons go through the glass. There's also, which is on the photons that are going through. I'm going to go straight through and what what, what fraction are scattered such as installing self-cleaning stain resistant and for making sure your glass functions in a variety of different environment so that the lights need to go through. So do a lot of gigabytes. Blastocyst an important function, in terms of the overall durability of your device on the schematics on the right is

going to be a barrier your device which could include on an electrode moisture oxygen through the glass is very important terms of providing a barrier between harmful elements and your device when the computer in reacts to Grey's your device. There's a lot of different. Stressors, that your device may be subject to a smartphone or tablet. There's constant rubbing against so things. Like I'm just water and moisture, could be potentially rain, make sure that your device different layers in your

life separate. There's a lot of different stressors that you're up to. What are the ways to be subject to things like ultraviolet, light temperature, or different types of precipitation like, rain and hail in. All these different cases, stars and important, protective layer or barrier or your overall device. The most important property is the transparency for materials that are not absorbing. This is basically the same thing as a reflection of the reflection. Plus the transmission is equal to 100%. So you want to maximize the transparency

of the glass or minimize the reflection you want to have a surface that is buried in to reflect reflect a reflection that happened at the interface between the surface of the last in the air. You can see some examples break, not the reflection, coating of water, wavelength. Material. And the index of refraction is in between the air by using a single layer. You can actually reduce at a single wave 1 all the way to zero. However, more than just Add a single wavelength in, at normal incidence about reflection across a wide variety of angles. So

care about a wide variety of angles in a wide variety of wines. So for solar modules, L belt across and Tyler the solar Spectrum. We also care about the visible way. You can have your son, somebody getting a wide variety of angles throughout the day, most solar modules. And do you want to not only have your reflection? Do you want a wide variety of weight loss? All the Angles and Weight Wise. On this is also important for this plays as you can see yourself in the first you want as much light as possible or modules

much light as possible into your solar cell into our city as possible in the second case, for display, if you want as much lights out of it. And it's important to have a title in this case, as well as you can see, the screen for my body tingles. You want the light to amount and a wide variety of mangle. Violinspiration, you some examples. Of the month. I have Visa Saginaw structures and or better under low light conditions, red light, more light goes into the moth by

There's also a structure such as security or glass, winged, butterfly wings. And these structures also provide for into reflection across a wide variety of wavelengths, as long as well as a wide variety of angles and it helps these insects. Hide from predators sample, muscle like just goes through and the Predator mainly just sees the weeks and not the inside. So we can take some inspiration for these from these types of structures that are found in nature and see if these types of structures in glass

or better at your function properties. In this particular project with cigar. We looked at the three different types of structures. The first structure that you see here, the top is just a thin film, a single an extra fraction thin film. The second structure that we looked at are these vertical arrays of nanowires cylinders? In the third structure that we looked at our Continental codes. And so these are actually ostrom's mathematically did not a real place in a square lattice. Display just defined by the diameter and the ice as well as the

spacing in square. Ray are defined by the height. Popeye Amber the bottom diameter as well as the fifth. And this particular project we looked at the objective optimization problem. So we focused on solar. So in this case are your boat on on Spectrum. So the number of protons of the function of wave 1, the rsf is your reflection reflection integrating these two together. You can get your integrated solar reflection and specifically we wanted to look at 0°

and we just arbitrarily fixed a high angle which in this case was 65 degrees. Five degrees to get the functions capture with a what I've described before, 14 function minimize across a wide variety of different incidents. Daiso to do this, we work with us in building optimization recently, searched or the Gretel optimal set of these three structures based on these two objective functions. So we we formulated these the optimization problem so that some were trying to

minimize reflection. Discover different parts of the Gretel efficient Frontier. So I can process models are represented by a work-related or reflection at 0° and 65 degrees respectively. By using these functions. This model. There's an acquisition function. That was built to. Builds based on expected Improvement of additional additional. So basically doing simulation maximize the expected Improvement. and, Basically alternated. Approved CDL. Refraction and reflection at 6:55 degrees. Help me

demonstrate the performance of a biopsy by Eugen optimization algorithm while we compared it with the popular most active optimization algorithm, which is genetic algorithms, nsga to astounded. So sensitive to the population size used. So we tried a variety of population sizes and generation. The number of generations, sell 5x, 2020 means for twenty Generations. Use Is the overall budget, Aldi simulations was 100, the difference in performance between or

opposition as well as the stones on the right. So you just a little bit more. The last, most famous shows all the situations that were done. Whereas the next second image shows, just what the optimization performs better than the genetic algorithm in finding structures that have better lower reflection at 0° and 55 degrees. Here are the results for where now we've done. 500 simulations of nanowires and then a lb installed during the sickness, three structures of the other film in Blu-ray.

Has the lowest degree auction is much higher than the other structures that are cell. next, we perform some post office in Alice's on structures that are bred or fission nanowire structures that have best in your fucking properties, a short and still faster of the nanowires. They occupy a fraction of the surface which corresponds to a bad for an ideal single-layer snow. For the main wires are defective medium that gives over all about the same performance

as a single layer spell. This allows for minimal question at the top and the bottom of the bottom of the be equal to a the pitch at the bottom of the name of Thrones fell off the area as much as possible. As we went ahead and fabricated, these types of structures, used a reactive iron method method and you can see these are some of the cone like structures that we asked me to the bar and compare the performance of stimulation Sian concede. This is the integrated over there.

so despite this project with the cigar demonstrated, how we can integrate buy engine optimization with the first principle in studying various structures and trying to minimize performance optimization and minimize reflection at 0° and high-angle and also offer a wide variety of This project we try to address some challenges with the fabrication of these structures. How can we make these structures over large areas? We have very high commission. How come you have a good party and also provide for a

butterfly wing using reactive process dimensional a parameter space. You have different times the power of touching the pressure of the gas in the chamber, as well as the deposition of silica. In this case will try to maximize the transmission to minimize the amount of light that scattered provide for a high oil optimization to build a model using to have play the acquisition function, for where we should perform, additional experiments are rate. Answer, this is an example of this for this three different parameters. Transmission is in contact, angle observed data points,

and learning model based on these data points with the confidence, intervals as well. And then based on the acquisition function. We have a digital experiments for us and we get a right These are 60 simulations that we performed you basically cereal and also turn off my property stars of the voice for maximum transmission, minimum, and maximum butterfly wing fairly small. The oriented structures or function property. Colonel left. You can see this is not your typical standard glass liquid at the wedding on the right is the star

butterfly wing glass. Winged butterfly wing inspired glass. Not only has higher transmission, but it has lower or scattering of this allows you to see things more clearly and also repels a wide variety of liquid. Liquid liquid. This is the actual experimental transmission data. Double-sided means the structures of the nest on both sides of the glass. And you can see we have a post to 99% Five here. Show. Some of the properties of the glass in the top row to see your normal glass in the

water and stew on the surface and both are chocolate or ice in the second row. This is our nanostructured glass butterfly in a glass. If you do break the surfaces, in this case, we use the Scotch-Brite sponge to write heart racing surface. Something you might use to remove Grime in your pots and pans. You can actually see that degrade. But basically she dumped the surface and some of the molecules online class will start to a diffuser. Awesomest collaboration was the result of the paper that was featured on the cover of a materials Verizon. You can see

working together with machine learning and knowledge mission. So we demonstrate a strategy to create the water. Different oils can also be in pain. Also have some self-healing. We're after radiation or separation. You cannot see all of the surface. I just want to sell some of all the stuff that we've done with glass outside of Collaborations with the cigar self cleaning glass should be videos of the year on the splice and roll down and just take the cities

where there's a lot of pollution tablet, or your cell phone in English. Holding up on the surface. We've also demonstrated some Optical switch ability in terms of ability and because of water has a similar next to a fraction as the nanostructures accentuate your face. So there's a very low light scattering and and you have a lot of light, scattering. 2022 has been announced by the United Nations. I don't win sons of artwork at this video through glass as well. On your monitor is important for a lot of biomedical applications storage of different

container of medicine, vaccines, things like that. I'm so yeah, like what sports and Rogers Centre? All nice looking. I'm still my group is all my stuff to you. Check out for more information or Publications and Foundation Center University. In the picture on the right between industry universities as well as Government Labs on. So interested in girls work. Please reach out to me and be happy to talk to you more. I would like to thank you all for being part of the stomach and look forward to

open session. I just want to say thank you very much.

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